ch.16

Term Definition
caravel a light, fast sailing ship with a rudder and lateen sails
henry the navigator son of king john I of portugal, patron and supporter of explorers
vasco da gama portuguese explorer who traveled to calicut, india in 1497
christopher columbus italian sailor who traveled west to reach china but discovered islands in the Caribbean instead
ferdinand magellan first explorer to attempt the circumnavigation of the globe; while he was killed on the way, some of his sailors completed the journy
circumnavigate travel completely around the world
sir francis drake english explorer, second man to circumnavigate the world
henry hudson dutch sailor who looked unsuccessfully for the northwest passage and explored the river that is now named after him
encomienda spanish system in which a colonist received land native american workers to whom he was requiered to teach christianity
hernan cortes spanish explorer and conqueror of mexicos aztec empire
conquistador spanish term for conqueror; name fro spanish military who fought against the native people of the Americas
moctezuma II aztec emperor at the time of cortes's conquest of mexico
fransisco pizarro conqueror of the inca empirein peru for the spanish
atahualpha ruler of the inca empire killed by spanish invaders led by pizzarro
viceroys officials who ruled large areas of spains american coloniesin the kings name
bartolome de las casas spanish priest who criticized treatment of native americans, suggesting that slaves from africa be used as laborers insted
treaty of tordesillas treaty signed in 1493 dividing the americas between spain and portugal along an imaginary line
columbian exchange the exchange of plants, animals, and diseases due to contact between peoples of europe and the amaricas
mercantilism the european economic policy that called for nations to gain wealth in order to build a strong military and expand influence
balance of trade the amount of goods sold by a country against those purchased from other countries; a favorable balance of trade meant selling more goods than were bought
subsidies grants of money given by governments for purchase for purposes such as helping people start new businesses
capitalism economic system in which private individuals rather than governments perform most of the economic activity, with the goal of making a profit
jointstock company a company in which investors byuy a share of a stock, reciving a portion of the profits, but losing only what they put in if it fails
plantation estates in the americas where cash crops were grown on a large scale
triangular trade trading networ kthat brought goods from europe to africa to be traded for slaves, tookk the slaves to the americas to be sold, then brought american goods back to europe
middle passage name for the second leg of the triangle, bringing captive africans to the americas, where they were sold as slaves
olaudah equiano african who wrote about the horrible conditions africans endured on the middle passage voyages
african disppora the spread of people of african decent throughout the americas and western europe as a result of the slave trade, eventually spreading african culture throughout the western world

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