The process of providing general direction and influencing individuals or groups to achieve goals.
drive, leadership motivation, integrity, self-confidence, cognitive ability, knowledge of the domain, openness to new experiences, extraversion
A behavioral leadership style demonstrated by leaders who establish well-defined patterns of organization and communication, define procedures, and delineate their relationships with those being led.
A behavioral leadership style demonstrated by leaders who express friendship, develop mutual trust and respect, and have strong interpersonal relationships with those being led.
contingency theory of leadership effectiveness
A theory of leadership that suggests that the effectiveness of a leader depends on the interaction of his style of behavior with certain characteristics of the situation.
The degree to which a leader is respected, is accepted as a leader, and has friendly interpersonal relations.
The degree to which tasks can be broken down into easily understood steps or parts.
The degree to which a leader can reward, punish, promote, or demote individuals in the unit or organization.
path-goal leadership theory
A theory of leadership based on expectancy concepts from the study of motivation, which suggests that leader effectiveness depends on the degree to which a leader enhances the performance expectancies and valences of her subordinates.
Leadership behavior characterized by implementing guidelines, providing information on what is expected, setting definite performance standards, and ensuring that individuals follow rules.
Leadership behavior characterized by friendliness and concern for individuals’ well-being, welfare, and needs.
Leadership behavior characterized by setting challenging goals and seeking to improve performance.
Leadership behavior characterized by sharing information, consulting with those who are led, and emphasizing group decision making.
A leadership approach that is based on the exchange relationship between followers and leaders. There are three types of transactional leadership behavior types: contingent reward, active-management-by exception, and laissez faire.
A form of transactional leadership that involves clarifying performance expectations and rewarding followers when those expectations are met.
active management by exception
A form of transactional leadership that involves clarifying minimal performance standards and punishing those who do not perform up to the standards.
leaders do nothing
A leadership approach that involves motivating followers to do more than expected, to continuously develop and grow, to increase self-confidence, and to place the interests of the unit or organization before their own. Transformational leadership involves charisma, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration.
A leader’s ability to inspire emotion and passion in his followers and to cause them to identify with the leader.
A model of leadership focused on leaders developing more positive relationships with some individuals and having more positive exchanges with these individuals.
An approach to leadership focused on serving others.
A model holding that because women often experience lack of power, lack of respect, and certain stereotypical expectations, they develop leadership styles different from those of the men.
A model proposing that all leaders in a particular organization will display similar leadership styles, because all have been selected and socialized by the same organization.