Ch 10: A. Maslow

Abraham Maslow
Self-Actualizing Theory (II)
Biography of A. Maslow
-grew up in the libraries with books rather than friends.
-childhood: economically + socially deprived
-U of Wisco
-Underwent psychoanalysis
Nature of Human Beings
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Nature of Human Beings
A. All humans are born with instinctoid (innate) needs
B. Deficiency and Growth Motives
C. Hierarchy of Human needs
D. Metamotivation (metaneeds)
E. Unconscious
F. Teleology
Nature of Human Beings
A. All humans are born with instinctoid (innate) needs
-predominantly healthy, they include the capacity for constructive growth, kindness, generosity, and love.

-also agreed with Erikson, saying these are very weak and are easily overwhelmed by the far more powerful forces of learning and culture.

Nature of Human Beings
B. Deficiency and Growth Motives
Deficiency (D-motives) -instinctoid impulses: aim toward the reduction of such drives as hunger, thirst, safety, and obtaining love and esteem from others.

-motives possessed by everyone and involve important lacks within us that must be satisfied by appropriate objects of people.

Growth (B-motives) -contrast to deficiency, these are independent of environment and are unique to the individual.

-include pleasurable drive increases (ex. curiosity), the selfish and nonpossesive giving of love to others and development of one’s healthy potentials.

Nature of Human Beings
C. Hierarchy of Human needs
1. physiological needs (hunger, thirst, sex)
2. safety needs (stable, predictable, free from anxiety and chaos)
3. belongingness and love need (desire 4 affectionate relationships)
a) D-love is selfish – selfish deficiency need to receive love from others, involves anxious and manipulative efforts to win the loved one’s affection.
b) B-love is unconditional – growth-oriented, which is non possessive, unselfish, and more enjoyable than D-love. willingness to reveal weaknesses and strength. HONESTY

4. Esteem needs (above needs must be met) need for superiority and respect. mastery of environment. based on real competence and significant achievement.

5. Need for self-actualization -discovering and fulfilling one’s own innate potentials. Only found among older people, cannot be reached if lower levels aren’t met.

Nature of Human Beings
D. Metamotivation (metaneeds)
B-values – what motivates the self-actualizing person. No tension reduction.

1. Frustration of metaneeds produces metapathologies.

metaneeds: love, beauty, truth, goodness, and justice.

Nature of Human Beings
E. Unconscious
Different than Freud’s. Consists of needs that are not begin met (in the unconscious).

– has memories of our own shameful actions, and such important positive potentials as love, creativity, and humor.

Nature of Human Beings
F. Teleology
We have goals towards which we strive for.
– we have our future within us, active in the present moment
Structure of Personality
A.
B.
A. Defenses
B. Humanistic conscience
Structure of Personality
A. Defenses
(Freud)
-regression
-repression
-projection
-Reaction formation
-Rationalization
Structure of Personality
B. Humanistic conscience (similar to Roger’s organismic valuing process) vs. introjected conscience
Maslow agrees that we have both a humanistic and introjected conscience.

Humanistic – troubles us when we behave un ways contrary to our inner nature, inherent

Introjected – (parental standards) may clash with our true organismic needs and values. Inevitable, depicts what’s right from wrong

Development of Personality
A.
B.
A. Parents and others must meet the needs (hierarchy) of the child
B. Characteristics of Self-actualizers
Development of Personality
B. Characteristics of self-actualizers
B. Characteristics of self-actualizers
1. More accurate perception of reality -objective (evaluate people and events with a lot more accuracy)

2. greater acceptance of self and others – accept selves (shortcomings and strengths) without complain or worry (avoid judging others or themselves)

3. greater spontaneity and self-knowledge – open and direct ways of behaving

4. greater problem centering – sense of mission, committed to their work

5. greater need for privacy-detachment and solitude (prefer greater amount of privacy, rely on their own feelings and values)

6. greater autonomy and resistance to enculturation – function autonomous of social, physical, an environmental influences, able to resist social pressures (motivated to fulfill their own potentials. their needs for love and esteem are largely satisfied, less likely to manipulate others for selfish purposes) HIPSTERS

7. greater freshness of appreciation and richness of emotional response – existential (live richer and more fulfilling lives because they cherish those blessings that they have received)

Development of Personality Continued
B. Characteristics of self-actualizers
8. mystical or peak experiences.

peak experiences: mystical moments of absolute perfection, during which the self is lost in the feelings of sublime ecstasy, wonder and awe.

9. greater frequency of B-cognition – nonjudgmental, does not aim toward fulfillment of some motive, emphasizes the unity in oneself and the cosmos.
(engage in B-cog thinking – always accompanies a peak experience)
(opposite: D-cog- judgmental, concern needs to to satisfy the deficiency motives, and stresses the separateness of oneself and the environment)

10. greater social interest- empathy and affection for all human beings, desire to help humanity

11. deeper, more loving interpersonal relationships (prefer deep interpersonal relationships with a few people rather than superficial contacts with many people) love is nonpossesive (B-love)

12. more democratic character structure – tolerate and accept all people, love everyone

13. greater discrimination between good and evil (strong moral and ethical standards, accept responsibility for their actions and don’t blame it on anyone)

14. an unusual sense of humor – not hostile, hour that is philosophical and instructive. not fond of “insult” jokes, dislike humor based on hostility or superiority

15. greater creativity (creative approach to life, virtue not limited to artist)

Further Apps.
A.
B.
C.
Further Apps.
A. Psychopathology
B. Psychotherapy.
C. Work
Further Apps.
A. Psychopathology
1. not satisfying the hierarchal needs.
2. the failure to fulfill one’s true potential
3. metapathology (repression of or denial of one’s metaneeds, and is all too common in a society that elevates materials rewards above idealistic standards like truth and justice.
Further Apps.
B. Psychotherapy
1. meet fundamental needs
a) establish and maintain good human relations
b) replace psychotherapy with friends and marriage

2. therapeutic procedures
a) eclectic
b) accepting, genuine, kind and concerned – sometimes with authority
c) resistance, transference, and countertransference

Further Apps.
C. Work
1. Eupsychian management – help employees satisfy their needs for belongingness, dignity, respect, and self-actualization
Evaluation
A. Criticisms and Controversies
1. Overly optimistic view of the human race
a) lack of integration
2. Definition of self-actualization
3. Lack of empirical testing
(positive psychology)