Ch 1 Assessing Your Health

Those that are healthy and thriving in later years _ (why are healthy?)
set the stage for good health by making it a priority in their early years
List the top ten reported impediments to academic performance (survey by National College Health Association)
1. stress
2. sleep difficulties
3. anxiety
4. cold/flu/sore throat
5. work
6. Internet use/ computer games
7. Depression
8. Concern for friend/family member
9. Relationship difficulties
10. Extracurricular activities
The amount of sleep you get each night can affect_(3)
your body weight, ability to ward off colds, and driving
what is the most commonly reported impediments to academic success?
sleep
like sleep, what is another example that has immediate effects in yourself? how it affects you? (4)
-smoking
-fatigue, throat irritation, and breathing problems. increases vulnerability to colds and infections
_(action) reduces your immediate health and your academic performance
drinking alcohol
what are the immediate effects of alcohol?
-increases risk of unintentional injuries (motor vehicle accidents, falls, drownings, and other harm or damages)
People between the ages of 15 and 44, what is the leading cause of death? (relate to alcohol)
unintentional injury-whether related to alcohol use or any other factor
health choices have what kind of effect?
immediate benefits
what is the first leading cause of death of all ages ?
disease of the heart
what is the leading cause of death in ages between 15-44?
Uninentional injuries
what is the leading cause of death in ages between 45-64? what about above 65?
45-64= malignant neoplasms (cancer)
65+= diseases of the heart
having good health choices can lead to what long term rewards? how this compares to poor choices? How this is called (rewards)?
-Good health
-Longer life
-Higher quality of life
-Poor choices increase the likelihood of a shorter life, as well as persistent illness, addiction, and other limitations of quality of life
-Successful aging
Personal choices influence your_
life expectancy
what mortality and death statistics are? (what show)
reflect proportion of deaths within a population
according to current morality and death statistics the average life expectancy at birth in the US is projected to be_years for a child born in 2012
78.5 years
life expectancy
expected number of years of life remaining at a given age, such as at birth
what was the life expectancy for people born in the early 1900s? why?
-47 year-life expectancy
-because life expectancy 100 years ago was largely determined by our suceptibility to infectious diseases
why should I care about this?
just as health problems can create challenges for success, improving tour health can lead to better academics, career success, increased relationship satisfaction, and more joy in living overall
In 1900s, in kids what was the leading death? what about adults?
-infections for kinds
-among adults, infectious diseases like tuberculosis and pneumonia were the leading cause of death
what were international diseases? (widespread epidemics) (2)
widespread epidemics of infectious diseases such a cholera and influenza crossed national boundaries and killed millions
what was the solution to short life expectancy due to diseases?
With the development of vaccines and antibiotics, life expectancy increased dramatically as premature deaths from infectious diseases decreased
as a result of creating vaccines and antibiotics , the leading cause of death shifted to what?
the leading cause of death shifted to chronic diseases
mortality
the proportion of deaths to population
chronic disease
a disease that typically beings slowly, progresses, and persists, with a variety of signs and symptoms that can be treated but not cured y medication
what are examples of chronic diseases? (4)
-heart disease
cerebrovascular disease (which leads to strokes)
-cancer
-chronic lower respiratory diseases
some researchers what believe about this tend of increasing life expectancy? what study confirms this?
-some researchers question whether this trend of increasing life expectancy will continue
-a recent study projects today’s newborns will be the first generation to have a lower life expectancy that of their parents
what are two major contributors to future reductions in life expectancy?
obesity and sedentary lifestyle
give examples of factors that reduce life expectancy(4)
-smoking
-high blood pressure
-elevated blood glucose
-overweight/ obesity
whereas _may be the biggest reason for future declines in life expectancy, _may also have an impact
-lifestyle choices
-health care decisions
Healthful choices increase your life expectancy, but another benefit of these healthful choices is that they increase your_
Healthy life expectancy
healthy life expectancy
-expected number of years of full health remaining at a given age, such as at birth
-number of years full of health you enjoy without disability, chronic pain, or significant illness
what is another dimension of healthy life expectancy?
Healthy-related quality of life (HRQoL)
health-related quality of life (HRQoL)
-Assessment of impact of health status–including elements of physical, mental, emotional, and social function–on overall quality of life
-a multidimensional concept that includes elements of phyisical, mental, emotional, and social function
-HRQoL goes beyond mortality rates and life expectancy and focuses on the impact health status has on overall quality of life
closely related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is_
well-being
well being (what it is and what assesses)
-an uplifiting feeling of inner peace
-it assesses the positive aspects of a person’s life, such as positive emotions and life satisfaction
how our personal health choices affect the lives of others?
because they contribute to global health or global burden of disease
explain how obesity affects others in the US (include direct and indirect)
-Obesity burdens the US health care system and the US economy overall
-Direct medical costs roughly half of those were paid by public programs (Medicaid and Medicare)
-indirect costs include reduced tax revenues because of income lost from absenteeism and premature death, increased disability payments because of inability to remain in the workforce,and increased health insurance rates as claims rise for treatment of obesity itself as well as its associated diseases
what are the healthy life expectancy ages of men and women? average total life expectancy ages?
-67 and 71 are healthy life expectancy ages of men and women in US, while the average total life expectancy ages are 75.7 and 80.6
what is meant by quality of life?
refers to a persons’or group’s perceived physical and mental health over time
what is the relation between illness or disability with quality of life? give example
-just because a person has an illness or disability does not mean his or her quality of is necessarily low
-ex: bethany hamilton lost her arm in a shark attack while surfing at age of 13, but that has not prevented her from achieving her goals and a high quality of life
direct and indirect costs to society are also associated with_(3) how?
-smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and illegal drug use
-all these place an economic burden on our communities and our society as a whole. It include social and emotional costs (families without parents or lost loved ones; The burden care givers that take care of these disabled people.)
what are the arguments regarding the ethical question of the individual health choices cost society: to what extent should the public held accountable for an individual’s unhealthy choices? should we require individuals to somehow pay for their poor choices? Is this a black and white situation?
1. tax cigarettes, alcohol, sweetened soft drinks
2. On the other side, of the argument are those who argue that smoking and drinking are addictions that require treatment, not punishment, and that obesity is a product of society of excess in which small children learn behavior early in life that are difficult to break
-It is not a black and white situation because personal choices that influence health are not always entirely within our control
Why should I be concerned about health conditions in other places? include example
-unhealthy conditions in one location can have far-reaching impacts on the economy and health.
ex: when the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan caused devastation in that country, productivity losses were felt as far away as Europe. The natural disaster aslo dmaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, spreading radiation throughout the region and fear of potential nuclear fallow throughout the world
Determinants of Health
The range of personal. social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health status
why there are so many variations in the definition for health?
-In part, the differences are due to an increasingly enlightened way of viewing health that has taken shape over time
-As our collective understanding of illness has improved, so has our ability to understand the many nuances of health
how health model has changed?
it has broadened form a focus on the individual physical body to an understanding of health as a reflection not only of ourselves, but also of our communities
what are the names of the two health models?
-medical model
-public health model
perception of health was dominated by what model?
medical model
what was the perspective of a person that made it to 50 years old before the 20th century? what was part of having good health? (3) what model contains this perspective?
if you made it to your fiftieth birthday, you were regarded as lucky. Survivors were believed to be of hearty, healthy stock-having what we might refer to today as “good genes” We did not have the meas to delve into factors influencing risks, and as such, cleanliness, good behavior, and a bit of luck were part of the good health formula
-This is part of the medical model
medical model
-A view of health in which health status focuses primarily on the individual and a biological or diseases organ perspective
-focused on the individual and his or her tissues and organs
in the medical model what was the surest way to improve health? how gov focused its resources?
The surest way to bring about improved health was to cure the individual disease, either with medications to treat the disease-causing agent or through surgery to remove the diseased body part. Thus, government resources focused on initiatives that led to treatment, rather than prevention, of disease
what is the old vs new model?
-old model: medical model
-new model: public health model
since when public health model started? why? (include other name to model)
-Not until the early decades of 1900s did researchers begin to recognize that entire populations of poor people, particularly those living in certain locations, were victims of environmental factors over which they had little control (polluted water, air, and food; poor housing; and unsafe work settings) As a result, this new understanding, researchers began to focus on an ecological or public health model
public health model (other name and definition)
-ecological health model
-A view of health in which diseases and other megative health events are seen as result of an individual’s interaction with his or her social and physical environment
-diseases and other negative health events are due to interaction between individual and her or his social and physical environment
what was the effect of recognition of public health model? (3)
-enabled health officials to move to control contaminants in water, control burning and other forms of air pollution
-colleges began offering courses in health and hygiene to teach students about these important factors
-public health officials began to recognize and address many other forces affecting human health, including hazardous work conditions, negative influences in the home and social environment, abuse of drugs and alcohol, stress, unsafe behavior, diet, sedentary lifestyle, and cost, quality, and access to health care
what are the 10 greatest public health achievements of 20th century?
-vaccinations
-motor vehicle safety
-workplace safety
-control of infectious diseases
-reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke deaths
-sage and healthy foods
-maternal and infant care
-family planning
-fluoridated drinking water
-recognition of tobacco as a health hazard-
what today health and wellness means?
taking a positive, proactive attitude toward life and living it to the fullest
how ecological or public health model shifted the form of treatment? examples?
-focus shifted from treatment of individual illness to disease prevention by reducing or eliminating factors that caused illnesses and injury
ex: policies, programs, and services to improve individual health and that of the population as a whole
disease prevention
actions or behaviors designed to keep people from getting sick
example of disease prevention? (3)
-vaccination
-seat belts and airbags in cars
-laws regarding occupation safety
what is the definition of health by World Health Organization (WHO)? what model was contradicted by this definition?
-health is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not just the absence of disease or infirmity
-the medical model
alongside prevention, the public health model began to emphasize_
health promotion
health promotion
-The combined educational, organizational, procedural, environmental. social, and financial supports that help individuals and groups reduce negative health behaviors and promote positive change
-policies and programs that promote behaviors known to support good health
what kind of people is targeted by health promotion programs? what they motivate them to do?
health promotion programs ID healthy people who are engaging in risk behaviors and motivate them to change their actions by changing aspects of the larger environment to increase an individuals’ chance of success
risk behaviors
actions that increase susceptibility to negative health outcomes
numerous _(3) have worked to improve our overall health in the past 100 years
-policies
-individual actions
-public services
what is the definition of health proposed by Rene Dubos? what is the name of his book?
-Book: So Human an Animal
-He proposed a even broader definition of health
-Dubos defined health as a quantity of life, involving social, emotional, mental, spiritual, and biological fitness on the part of the individual, which results from adaptations to the environment
what about Dubos’s definition is important in understanding health?
This concept of adaptability, or ability to cope successfully with life’s ups and downs, became a key element in our overall understanding of health
eventually the word_entered the popular vocabulary
wellness
wellness
the achievement of the highest level of health possible in each of several dimensions
how wellness made Dubo’s definition of health broader?
by recognizing levels or gradations of health within each category
to achieve high-level wellness, what a person must do? what happens if fails?
-To achieve high-level wellness a person must move progressively higher on a continuum of positive health indicators. Those who fail to achieve these levels may slip into illness, premature disability or death
wellness works the same as what chemistry concept? (key to remember)
pH
Today, words health and wellness are used interchangeably to mean_
the dynamic, ever-changing process of trying to achieve one’s potential in each of six interrelated dimensions
list the 6 dimensions of health
-physical health
-social health
-intellectual health
-Emotional health
-Spiritual health
-Environmental health
describe the dimension of health: physical health
-includes characteristics such as body size and shape, sensory acuity and responsiveness, susceptibility to disease and disorders, body functioning, physical fitness, and recuperative abilities
-Newer definition of physical health include ability to perform normal activites of daily living (ADLs) or those tasks that are necessary to normal existence in society, such as getting up out of a chair, bending over to tie your shoes, writing a check
describe the dimension of health:
Social health
-The ability to have a broad social network and have satisfying interpersonal relationships with friends, family members, and partners is a key part of overall wellness
-being able to give and receive love and to be nurturing and supportive in social interactions
-successfully interacting and communicating with others, adapting to various social situations, and other daily behaviors are all part of social health
-adapt to social situations, and behave appropriately in daily activities.
describe the dimension of health: Intellectual health
The ability to think clearly, reason objectively, analyze critically, and use brainpower effectively to meet life’s challenges are all part of this dimension
-This includes learning from success and mistakes and making sound, responsible decisions that consider all aspects of a situation.
-It also includes having a healthy curiosity about life and an interest in learning new things
describe the dimension of health:
emotional health
-This is the feeling component-being able to express emotions when appropriate, and to control then when not. Self-esteem, self-confidence, self-efficacy, trust. love. and many emotional reactions and responses are all part of emotional health
describe the dimension of health:
spiritual health
-This dimension involves having a sense of meaning and purpose in your life. This may involve a belief in a supreme being or a specific way of living prescribed by a particular religion
-it also may include the ability to understand and express one’s purpose in life; to feel a part of a greater spectrum of existence; to experience peace, contentment, and wonder over life’s experiences; and to care about and respect all living things
describe the dimension of health:
Environmental health
-This dimension entails understanding how the health of the environments in which you life, work, and play can positively or negatively affect you; protecting yourself from hazards in your own environment; and working to preserve, protect, and improve environmental conditions for everyone
achieving wellness what means?
attaining optimal level fo well-being for your unique limitations and strengths
explain how a disabled person can achieve a a greater wellness than a person that lifts weights?
-a physically disabled person may function at his or her optimal level of performance; enjoy satisfying interpersonal relationships; work to maintain emotional, spiritual, and intellectual health; and have strong interest in environmental concerns
In contrast, those who spend hours lifting weights
to perfect the size and shape of each muscle but pay little attention to their social or emotional health may look healthy by may not maintain a good balance in all dimensions
-physical attractiveness and athletic performance reveal little about a person’s overall health
to determine and measure health, the perspective to be taken is_
the perspective we need is holistic, emphasizing the valance integration of mind, body, and spirit
explain why personal choices are not totally within an individual control?
-the people that is around you influences you in your decisions, whether all your family is fit, mom reminds to visit dentist, fresh apples are on sale, and new bike trail opens along the river or all family is overweight and eat high-fat diet, friends urge you to drink and smoke, junk food is for sale, and you are afraid of your security to ride a bike near the river.
public health experts refer to the factors that influence health as_
determinants of health
determinants of health
-The range of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health status
the US surgeon general health promotion plan is called_. what is its goal?
-healthy people
-its goal is to improve the quality and years of life for all Americans
What are the overarching goals set out by the newest version of Healthy people 2020? (4)
-attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable diseases
-Achieve healthy equity, eliminate disparities, and improve health of all groups
-Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all
-Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages
Healthy People 2020 classifies health determinants into five large groupings:
-individual behavior
-biology and genetics
-social factors
-policy making
-health services
what are two possible results of individual behavior?
-can help to attain, maintain, or regain good health, or they deteriorate your health and promote disease
how experts refer to individual behavior and why?
-health experts refer to them as modifiable determinants because from birth onward, your behaviors are shaped by a multitude of influences. Fortunately, most behaviors are things you can change
Modifiable determinants (individual behavior) significantly influence your risk for_
chronic disease
what is the leading cause of death?
chronic diseases
List the 4 modifiable determinants (individual behavior) responsible for most of the illness and early death related to chronic diseases
-lack of physical activity
-poor nutrition
-Excessive alcohol consumption
-Tobacco use
physical inactivity and _are each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths in US adults
obesity
list the 3 poor nutrition that are dietary risks with the largest mortality effects
-high dietary salt
-low dietary omega-3 fatty acids
-high dietary trans fatty acids
what modifiable determinants (individual behavior) can add years to life? (4)
-exercise regularly
-drink alcohol in moderation
-eat 5 daily servings of fruits and vegetables
-do not smoke
how experts call biology and genetic determinants and why?
-health experts frequently refer to thse factors as nonmodifiable determints because biological and genetic determinants are things you cannot typically change or modify
what biology and genetics include? (mainly genetics)
-genetically inherited traits, conditions, and predispositions to diseases such as sickle cell disease, hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, allergies and asthma, cardiovascular diseases, certain cancers, diabetes, and other problems
what biology and genetics include? (mainly biology)
-certain innate characteristics: age, race, ethnicity, metabolic rate, body structure
what is a key biological determinant?
gender
your own history of_also classifies as biology. give example
illness and injury (if had knee injury, cause pain doing exercise so predispose to gain weight)
social factors include_
social and physical conditions in the environment in which people are born or live
give examples of social factors (social) (11)
-exposure to crime, violence, mass media, technology, and poverty, as well as availability of healthful foods, transportation, living wages, social support, and educational or job opportunities are all examples
give examples of social factors (physical conditions) (7)
-the natural environment, conditions such as good lighting, trees, or benches; state of buildings-homes, schools, or workplaces; exposure to toxic substances; and the presence of physical barriers, which can challenge people with disabilities
Within social factors, what is one of the most powerful of all determinants of health?
economic factors
example of how economic factors influence health
people who are in lower socioeconomic brackets have substantially shorter life expectancies and more illnesses than people who are wealthy
Economic disadvantages exert their effects on human health within nearly all domains of life. They include: (5)
-Lacking access to quality education from early childhood through adulthood
-Living in poor housing with potential exposure to asbetos, lead, dust mites, rodents, and other pests, inadequate sanitation, tap water that is not safe to drink, and high levels of crime
-Being unale to pay for nourishing food, warm clothes, and sturdy shoes; heat and other utilities; medication and medical supplies; transportation; and counseling services, fitness classes, and other wellness measures
-Having insecure employment or being stuck in a low-paying job with few benefits
-Having few assets to fall back on in case of illness or injury
what are the 2 factors of the physical environment within social factor?
-built environment
-quality of air, land, water, and foods that can have pollutants and infectious agents that harm us
the part of physical environment that is getting a fair amount of attention from public health officials is _. how? why?
-built environment
-researchers in public health have increasingly been promoting changes to the built environment that can improve the health of community members (enabling people to make better choices)
what built environment includes?
includes anything created or modified by human beings, from buildings to roads, transportation system, recreation areas, electric transmission lines and communication cables
what scale effects of pollutants and infectious agents are found?
-not only at the local communities. With teh rise of global travel and commerce, the health status of people in one region can affect the health status of people around the world
what policymaking is about? include examples
public policies and interventions can have a powerful effect on the health of individuals and communities
ex: policies banning smoking, mandating seat belts, vaccination programs, public funding for mental health services etc
The health of individuals and communities is also determined by access to_
quality health care, including not only services for physical and mental health, but also accurate and relevant health informaiton and products such as eye glasses, medical supplies, and medications
Individuals without_may delay going tot he doctor for regular preventive care . what is the problem with this?
-health insurance
-if they are sick, their disease may not be diagnosed until it is advanced, reducing the chance of recovery and leading to higher rates of hospitalization, longer stays, and more costly health care than for those who have insurance and get preventive screenings and prompt treatment
what is the problem of underinsured?
-Underinsured (those who have some coverage, but not enough
-These individuals cannot afford to pay the difference between what their insurance covers and what their providers and medications cost. Therefore, like uninsured, they tend to delay care or try other cost-saving measures such as taking only half of the prescribed dose of their medications
access to health services is affected by_(3)
-economics
-public policies
-health insurance legislation
because of changing demographics of US population and the vast differences in health status based on racial or ethnic background, Healthy people 2020 includes strong language about the importance of reducing these_
health disparities
health disparities
Differences in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and other health conditions among specific population groups
what factors can affect an individual’s ability to attain optimal health? (7)
-race and ethnicity
-inadequate health insurance
-Sex and gender
-Economics
-Geographic location
-Sexual orientation
-Disability
You have the most control over factors in just one category:
your individual behaviors (or modifiable determinants)
to be able to chagen negative behavior to positive behaviors that help your health, how is the process in general terms?
-Your chances of changing a negative habit improve when you ID a behavior that you want to change and then develop a plan for gradual transformation that allows you time to unlearn negative patterns and substitute positive ones.
-To successfully change a behavior, you need to see change not as a singular event but instead as a process that requires preparation, has several steps or stages, and takes time to occur
list the models of behavior change (3)
-health belief model
-social cognitive model
-transtheoretical model
explain what the health belief model explains
-We often assume that when rational people realize their behaviors put them at risk, they will change those behaviors and reduce that risk. However, it does not work that way for many of us. Consider the number of health professionals who smoke, consume junk good and act in other unhealthy ways. They surely know better, but their “knowing” is disconnected from their “doing”
-This model of behavior change proposes that our beliefs may help to explain why this occurs
belief
belief is an appraisal of the relationship between some object, action, or idea and some attribute of that object, action,or idea
explain definition of belief with smoking as example
belief is an appraisal of the relationship between some object, action, or idea (smoking) and some attribute of that object, action, or idea (smoking is expensive, dirty, and causes cancer or smoking is sociable and relaxing
what psychologists have studied about the relationship between beliefs and health behaviors?
Psychologists studying the relationship between beliefs and health behaviors have determined that although beliefs may subtly influence behavior, they may or may not cause people to behave differently
who developed health belief model?
I. Rosenstock (manera de acordarte, yo creo que me rose)
health belief model (HBM)
-Model for explaining how beliefs may influence behaviors
-it shows when beliefs affect behavior change
Health belief model (HBM) holds that several factors must support a belief before change is likely. list them (3)
1. perceived seriousness of the health problem
2. Perceived susceptibility to the health problem
3. Cues to action
explain the factor of health belief model (HBM): Perceived seriousness of the health problem
-the more serious the perceived effects are, the more likely it is that action will be taken
explain the factor of health belief model (HBM): Perceived susceptibility to the health problem
what is the likelihood of developing the health problem? People who perceive themselves at high risk are more likely to take preventive action
explain the factor of health belief model (HBM): Cues to action
A person who is reminded or altered about a potential health problem is more likely to take action
explain how HBM applies to older smokers vs young smokers?
Older smokers are more likely to know other smokers who have developed serous heart or lung problems. They are thus more likely to perceive tobacco as a threat to their health than are teenagers who have just begun smoking
The greater the perceived threat of health problems caused by smoking, the greater the chance a person will quit
Why do chronic smokers that know the risks ye continue to smoke? why they miss these cues to action? (2)
-some people do not believe they are susceptible to a sever problem–They act as thought they are immune to it– and are unlikely to change their behavior
-They also feel that the immediate pleasure outweighs the long-range cost
social cognitive model
Model of behavior change emphasizing the role of social factors and thought processes (cognition) in behavior change
Even thought, the social cognitive model was developed by various researchers, who was the main psychologist?
Albert Bandura (way to remember albert la banda dura eso si es pensar!)
the social cognitive model proposes that 3 factors interact in a reciprocal fashion to _. what are these?
-promote and motivate change
1. social environment in which we live
2. Our thoughts or cognition (including our values, perceptions, beliefs, expectations, and sense of self efficacy)
3. our behaviors
explain how behavior change happens in social cognitive model. Give example
we change our behavior in part by observing models in our environment–from childhood to the present moment–reflecitng on our observations, and regulation ourselves accordingly
explain how social cognitive model would explain the effect of seeing a mother successfully quitting smoking
-If as a child we observe our mother successfully quitting smoking, we are more apt to believe we can do it, too
-In addiiton, when we succeed in changing ourselves, we change our thoughts about ourselves, and this in turn may promote further behavior change: after we have successfully quit somking, we may feel empowered to increase our level of physical activity. Moreover, as we change ourselves, we change our world; in our example, we become a model of successful smoking cessation for others to observe. Thus, we are not just products of our environment, but producers
explain how the 3 factors are involved in social cognitive model
-we constantly change our behavior in response to factors in our social environment and our thoughts and feelings. In a reciprocal fashion, our behaviors change our environments as well as our thoughts and feelings–including our sense of our ability to make positive change
what model explains why so many New Year’s resolutions fail before Valentine’s Day?
Transtheroetical model
who proposed teh transtheoretical model? (2)
-James Prochaska
-Carlos Diclemente
(way to remember: pro chaska es diclemente)
Why do so many New Year’s resolutions fail before Valentine’s Day?
-it is because we are going about things in the wrong way; fewer than 20% of us are prepared to take action
what Prochaska and DiClemente concluded of behaviro changes? How change must be taken to be able to be successfuly?
-behavior changes usually do not succeed if they start with the change itself
-Instead, we must go through a seris of stages to adequately prepare ourselves for that eventual change
Transtheoretical model (other name and definition)
-also called the stages of change model
-Model of behavior change that identifies 6 distinct stages people go through in altering behavior patterns
our chances of keeping resolutions or behavior changes will be greatly enhanced if we have proper reinforcement and help during each of the following stages, list them (6)
1. precontemplation
2. contemplation
3. preparation
4. action
5. maintenance
6. Termination
explain the stage of the transtheoretical model: 1. precontemplation (describe how people can be found in this stage (2))
-people in this stage have no current intention of changing. They may have tried to change a behavior before and given up, or they may be in denail and unaware of any problem
explain the stage of the transtheoretical model: 2. contemplation (describe how people is found in this stage and how long they last in it)
-In this phase, people recognize that they have a problem and begin to contemplate the need to change
-Despite this acknowledgment, people can languish in this stage for years, realizing that they have a problem but lacking the time or energy to make the change
explain the stage of the transtheoretical model: 3. preparation (what people do in this stage)
Most people at this point are close to taking action. They have thought about what they might do and may even come up with a plan
explain the stage of the transtheoretical model: 4. action (how people is found in this stage (2 types of people)
-In this stage, people begin to follow their action plans. Those who have prepared for change appropriately and made a plan of action are more ready for action than those who have given it little thought
explain the stage of the transtheoretical model: Maintenance (how people is found in this stage and what is necessary)
-During this stage, a person continues the actions begun in the action stage and works toward making these changes a permanent part of his or her life
-In this stage, it is important to be aware of the potential for relapses and to develop strategies for dealing with such challengues
explain the stage of the transtheoretical model: 6. Termination (how people is found in this stage)
-By his point, the behavior is so ingrained that constant vigilance may be unnecessary.
-The new behavior has become an essential part of daily living
how we go through the stages of transtheoretical model?
-We do not go in sequentlial manner
-The stages may overlap, or we may shuttle back and forth from one to another for a whole before we truly become committed to making the change
-ex: contemplation to preparation, then back to contemplation
List steps to move forward with a change as part of transtheroetical model (4)
1. increase your awareness
2. Contemplate change
3. prepare for change
4. Take action to change
explain the step of: increase your awareness(2)
-become aware of behaviors that contribute to wellness in populations and the specific health determinants affecting you:
-before you can decide what you might want to change, you need to learn what researchers know about the behaviors that contribute to and detract for your health
-Make a list of all health determinants that affect you (both positively and negatively) should greatly increase your understanding of what you might want to change, and what you might need to do to make that change happen (ex: biology and behavior support vs puts obstacles in your health, elements of social and physical environment that could help you vs hold back)
in the next stage of awareness, which is contemplation change, what are the strategies that may be helpful? (6)
1-examine your current health habits and patterns
2-ID a target behavior
3-learn more about target behavior
4-assess your motivation and your readiness to change
5-develop self-efficacy
6-cultivate an internal locus of control
what are the questions that you should ask yourself when examining your current health habits and patterns? (5)
-how long and how frequently has this been going on?
-How serious are the consequences of the habit or patterns in the short and long term?
-What are some of your reasons for continuing this problematic behavior?
-What kinds of situations trigger the behavior?
-Are other people involved in this behavior? If so, in what way?
what are the factors that you must identify that encourage or discourage a habit as part of contemplating behavior changes? List them (3)
-predisposing factors
-enabling factors
-reinforcing factors
explain predisposing factors with smoke example
-Predisposing factors include life experiences, knowledge, cultural heritage, and beliefs.
-if your parents smoke, you have more likely to start smoking than someone whose parents do not smoke
explain enabling factors with smoke as example
-Enabling factors include abilities; physical, emotional, and mental capabilities; commitment to health; or resources that make health decisions easy or difficult.
How would positive enablers affect behavior change? That’s right – they encourage you to change. And negative enablers? They work against your intentions to change.
-ex: if your peers smoke, you are more likely to smoke
For example, if you want to join a gym but it turns out the closest one is on the other side of town, this would be a negative enabler. On the other hand, if you find an economical fitness center on your way home from school, this is a positive enabler.
explain reinforcing factors with smoke as example (apply one of the behavior change model)
-These include the presence or absence of support or encouragement of significant people in your life.
-Various reinforcing factors can also contribute to your current habits. If you decide to stop smoking, but your family and friends all smoke, you may lose your resolve. In such cases, it can be helpful to emply the social cognitive model and deliberately change aspects of your social environment
-For instance, you could spend more time with nonsmoking friends to give yourself a change to observe people modeling the positive behavior you want to emulate
To identify a target behavior, what you should ask yourself? (3) give a brief explanation of each
-What do I want? (ultimate goal; you need a clear picture of your target outcome)
-which change is the greatest priority at this time?(tackle first a specific behavior that contributes significantly to your greatest problem ex:do exercise to loose weight instead of eat less and do exercise at same time)
-Why is this important to me? (why you want to change. It is best to target a behavior because it is right for you rather than because you think it will help you win others’ approval)
in targeting a behavior, what will allow you to set goals?
-another aspect of targeting is filling in the details
-ID the specific behavior you would like to change, in contrast to general problem, will allow you to set clear goals
what you should learn in the step of learn more about the target behavior?
-Do not limit your focus to that behavior and its effects. Also think about what aspect of your would might pose obstacles to your success, and learn all you can about those
-learn everything you can possible can both positive and negative about target behavior
_to_is the number of times most people will attempt to change an unhealthy behavior before succeeding
3 to 5
_is an essential prerequisite of the change process but to achieve change yo need_
-wanting to change
-more than desire, you need real motivation
motivation
a social, cognitive, and emotional force that directs human behavior
simplify what the health belief model is about
your beliefs affect your ability to change
explain how health belief model (negative way) can dampen motivation. use smoker example
-when reaching for another cigarette, smokers sometimes tell themselves: I will stop tomorrow or they will have a cure for lung cancer before I get it
-These beliefs allow them to continue what they are doing. They dampen motivation.
what you need to do to achieve lasting change? (think about motivation)
-when contemplating change, take some time to think about your beliefs and consider whether they are likely to motivate you to achieve a lasting change
what do you need to ask youself when considering if beliefs are likely to motivate you to achieve lasting change? (2)
-Do you believe in that your current pattern could lead you to a serious problem? (The more severe the consequence are, the more motivated you will be to change the behavior)
-do you believe that you are personally likely to experience the consequences of your behavior?
how can I stay motivated to improve my health habits? (4)
-many people find easiest to stay motivated by planning small incremental changes, working toward a goal, and rewarding themselves along the way. Friends can also help you stay motivated by modeling healthy behaviors, offering support, joining you in your change efforts and providing reinforcement
explain how social cognitive model can help you to increase motivation? (2)
-if you are struggling to perceive the behavior as serious or the consequences as persona, try employ the social cognitive model to help change those beliefs
-ex: interview people struggling with the consequences of behavior you want to change
-Also you can use the positive influence of positive role models. people that successfully changed the behavior that you want to change. Hang out with them
finding ways to_is a key purpose behind many of the behavior change steps and processes
stay motivated
is motivation enough to make a behavior change? explain
Even though motivation is powerful, by itself it is not enough to achieve change. Motivation has to be combined with common sense, commitment, and a realistic understanding of how best to move from point A to point B
-“Readiness” is the state of being that precedes behavior change. People who are ready to change posses the knowledge, skill, and external and internal resources that make change possible
list the tips for maintaining motivation (8)
1. pick one specific behavior you want to change: trying too many things at once can be overwhelming
2. Assess the one behavior you wish to change: figure out why it is important to change. If it does not feel important, then you will have a hard time finding motivation, and it probably is not a behavior you should address at this time
3. set achievable and incremental goals: by developing both short and long term goals, you improve your chances of accomplishing them and staying motivated to move forward.
4. give yourself rewards: create a list of things you would find rewarding and plan for giving yourself specific rewards once you reach specific goals
5. Avoid or anticipate barriers and temptation: by controlling or eliminating the environmental cues that provoke the behavior you want to change, you will make it easier for yourself to succeed at lasting change
6. remind yourself why you are trying to change: prepare a list of benefits you will realize from making this change, both now and down the road. You can also prepare a list of the risks you face if you do not make this change. Post the list where you will see them daily
7. Enlist the help and support of others: Other people can be major motivators for positive change : either as role models, a cheering squad, or partners in change. Let know people you care about know about your plants for change and ask them for help
8. Do not be discouraged by lapses: everyone experiences temporary setbacks, and a brief lapse does not mean the entire cause is lost. Reexamine your plan, look for new strategies to motivate you, set some new short-term goals, and get right back on the horse
self-efficacy
-belief in one’s ability to perform a task successfully
-individual’s belief that he or she is capable of achieving certain goals or of performing at a level that may influence events in life
why self-efficacy is one of the most important factors that influences our health status?
prior success will lead to expectations of success in the future
people who exhibit high self-efficacy are_
-confident that they can succeed, and they can approach challenges with a positive attitude
-In turn, they may be more motivated to change and more likely to suceed
people with low self-efficacy how are?
-people with self doubts may give up easily or never even try to change a behavior
-they shy away from difficult challenges
-they may have failed before, and when the going gets tough, they are more likely to give up or revert to old patterns of behavior
what stage is the best to work on developing when you suspect you have low self-efficacy?
contemplation stage
what technique can help to increase self-efficacy?
-a technique of cognitive-behavioral therapy called cognitive restructuring
locus of control (2 type and definition)
-the location, external (outside oneself) or internal (within oneself), that an individual perceives as the source and underlying cause of events in his or her life
what conviction is a powerful motivation?
conviction you have the power and ability to change
what are two types of locus of control?
-external locus of control
-internal locus of control
external locus of control (motivation of these people and explain what this means)
-Individuals who feel they have limited control over their lives often find it more difficult to initiate positive changes. If they believe that someone or something else controls a situation or that they dare not act in a particular way because of peer repercussions, they may become easily frustrated and give up
-people with these characteristics have an external locus of control
internal locus of control (describe people that have it and motivation levels)
-people who have stronger internal locus of control believe that they have power over their own actions
-They are more driven by their own thoughts and are more likely to state their opinions and be true to their own beliefs
example of external locus of control
someone that finds out that diabetes runs in his family may resign himself to facing the disease one day instead of taking an active role in modifying his lifestyle to minimize his risk of developing diabetes
on this front, he would be demonstrating an external locus of control
example of internal locus of control
an individual exhibits internal locus of control when resisting a friend’s pressure to smoke
what are the steps to prepare to change? (6)
1. set realistic goal
2. use the SMART system
3. Use shaping
4. anticipate barriers to change
5. enlist others as change agents
6. sign a contract
what is a realistic goal? why to set a realistic goal?
-a realistic goal is one that you truly can achieve within the circumstances of your life right now
-knowing that your goal is attainable increases your motivation, which leads to better chance of success and to greater sense of self-efficacy which can motivate you to succeed even more
what are the two characteristics of unsuccessful goals?
-vague and open-ended
successful goals are_(think about specific system)
SMART
what SMART stands for? (SMART system)
-Specific
-measurable
-action-oriented
-realistic
-time-oriented
what is meant by specific in SMART? Use example
Attend a Tuesday/ Thursday aerobics class
what is meant by measurable in SMART?
Reduce my alcohol intake on saturday nights from 3 to 2 drinks
what is meant by action-oriented in SMART?
volunteer at the animal shelter on friday afternoons
what is meany by realistic in SMART?
increase my daily walk from 15 to 20 minutes
what is meant by time-oriented in SMART?
stay in my strength-training class for the full 10-week session, then reassess
what is shaping?
-using a series of small steps to gradually achieve a particular goal
-a stepwise process of making a series of small changes
-slow, progressive steps (ex: start walking then increase to run)
-change slowly
what 3 things can be considered to be barriers of change? (external factors)
-social determinants
-aspects of the built environment
-lack of adequate health care
list general barriers to change (internal) (5)
-overambitious goals
-self-defeating beliefs and attitudes
-falling to accurately assess your current state of wellness
-lack of support and guidance
-emotions that sabotage your efforts and sap your will
3 solutions to overambitious goals?
-set realistic goals
-use shaping (one step at a time)
-use SMART system to determine good and realistic gaols
self-defeating beliefs and attitudes are part of what model? examples?
-health belief model
ex: believing you are too young, fit, lucky to worry about consequences of behavior or feeling helpless to change your habits
what is meant by falling to accurately assess your current state of wellness?
falling to make sure that the planned change is realistic for YOU can be a barrier that leaves you with weakened motivation and commitment (say to walk 2 miles and you are tired and aching at 1 mile)
in lack of support and guidance as barrier includes_
need to recognize and limit interactions with people in your life who might oppose your decision to change (ex: friends that drink)
what is meant by emotions that sabotage your efforts and sap your will?
-emotional reactions can sabotage effforts to change by distracting you. Try to fix them first
-ex: bad day or fighting with someone.
what model is part of enlist others as change agents? explain how (2)
-social cognitive model recognizes the importance of our social contacts in successful change
-most of us are highly influenced by the approval or disapproval (real or imagined) of close friends, family members, and other social and cultural groups
-watching others successfully change their behavior can give you ideas and encouragement for your own change. this is modeling, which is a key component of social cognitive model of change
modeling
-learning specific behaviors by watching others perform them
-learning from role models
what people you can enlist as change agents? (3)
-family members
-friends
-professionals
who influences you in your childhood? when you get older?
your family influences your actions during your childhood, your friends and significant others influence your behaviors as you grow older
what kind of professionals can be used as change agents? (7)
-health instructor
-PE instructor
-coach
-health care provider
-academic adviser
-minister
-supporting groups (ex: alcoholic anonymous support groups)
what a behavior change contract serves for?
-functions as a promise to yourself
-as public declaration of intent
-as an organized plan that lays out start and end dates and daily actions
-a listing of barriers you may encounter
-as a place to brainstorm strategies to overcome barriers
-list of sources of support
-remainder of the benefits of sticking with the program
-it will help you clarity goals and make a commitment to change
fill out the behavior change contract to help you_(3)
-set a goal
-anticipate obstacles
-create strategies to overcome those obstacles
how do other people influence my health behaviors?
-the people in your life can play a huge role (both positive and negative) in the health choices you make
-The behaviors of those around you can predispose you to certain health habits, at the same time enabling and reinforcing them
-seeking out the support and encouragement of friends who have similar goals and interests will strengthen your commitment to develop and maintain positive health behaviors
what are behavior change strategies to take action to change? (6)
-visualization
-countering
-controlling the situation
-changing your self-talk
-rewarding yourself
-journaling
for visualization, which is _, a technique used is_to reach goals
-If you visualize yourself in your plan of action ahead of time, you’ll be better prepared when you put yourself to the test.
-verbal and mental practice
-imagined rehearsal
imagined rehearsal
practicing, through mental imagery, to become better able to perform and event in actuality
in visualization involves _, which will help you anticipate problems and greatly improve success
careful mental and verbal rehearsal of how you intend to act
countering
-“lucha en contra”
-substituting a desired behavior for an undesirable one
explain how countering works with junk food?
-if you want to stop eating junk food, compile a list of substitute foods and places to get them and have this ready before your mouth starts to water at the smell of a burger and fries
what is required to identify to control the situation?
antecedents and consequences of behavior
describe antecedents
-are the events or aspects of the situation that come beforehand; these cue or stimulate a person to act in certain ways
-antecedents can be physical events, thoughts, emotions, or the actions of other people
describe consequences
-the results of behavior
-affect whether a person will repeat that action
-consequences can also consists of physical events, thoughts, emotions, or the actions of other people
what you can do to ID antecedents and consequences of behavior?
-a diary noting your undesirable behaviors and ID the settings in which they occur can be useful in helping you determine the antecedents and consequences involved
once you have recognized the antecedents of a given behavior, you can employ_ (technique)to _(do what)
situational inducement to modify those that are working against you
situational inducement
-attempt to influence a behavior through situations and occassions that are structured to exert control over that behavior
-refers to influencing a behavior by using social settings to control the behavior.
how situational inducement can help you? (2)
-by carefully considering which settings will help and which will hurt your effort to change, and by seeking the first and avoiding the second,you will improve your chances for change
-ID substitute antecedents that can support a more positive result gives you a strategy for controlling the situation
self-talk
-the customary manner of thinking and talking to yourself, which can affect your self-image
-the way you think and talk to yourself
self-talk can also play a role in modifying_. It can reflect your feelings of_
-health-related behaviors
-self-efficacy
how can self-talk be negative to you?
-when we do not feel self-efficacious, it is tempting to engage in negative self-talk, which can sabotage our best intentions
list the strategies to change the self-talk and make it a positive way (include phrases and their way to fix them)
-“I do not have enough time” Chart your hourly activities for 1 day. what are the highest priorities and what you can eliminate? Plan to make time for a healthy change next week
-“I am too stressed!” Assess your major stressors right now. List those you can control and those you can change or avoid. Then ID 2 things you enjoy that can help you reduce stress now
– “I am worried about what others may think” Ask yoursself how much others influence your decisions about drinking, sex, eating habits, and the like. what is most important to you? what actions can take to act in line with these values?
-“I do not think I can do it” Just because you have not done something before does not mean you cannot do it now. To develop some confidence, take baby steps and break tasks into small segments of time
-“I cannot break this habit!” Habits are difficult to break. but not impossible. What triggers your behavior? List ways you can avoid these triggers. Ask for support from friends and family
what cognitive therapy is about?
-the rational emotive form of cognitive therapy, or self-directed behavior change is based on the premise that there is a close connection between what people say to themselves and how they feel
most emotional problems and related behaviors stem from _
irrational statements that people make to themselves when events in their lives are different from what they would like them to be
self-talk must have what kind of statements? what you should not use?
rational, positive statements
DO NOT USE irrational, negative statements
besides rational, positive statements, what other technique can be used for self-talk?
practice blocking and stopping
what is the technique of blocking and stopping?
by purposefully blocking or stopping negative thought, a person can concentrate on taking positive steps toward behavior change
another way to promote positive behavior change is to _. this is called_
-reward yourself for it
-positive reinforcement
positive reinforcement
-presenting something positive following a behavior that is being reinforced
-reward yourself to promote positive behavior change
what are the 5 classifications of positive reinforcers?
-consumable
-activity
-manipulative
-possessional
-social
what are consumable reinforcers?
-edible (can be eaten) items, such as favorite fruit or snack mix
what are activity reinforcers?
-are opportunities to do something enjoyable, such as going on a hike or taking a trip
what are manipulative reinforcers?
-are incentives such as getting lower rent in exchange for mowing the lawn or the promise of a better grade for doing and extra-credit project
what are possessional reinforcers?
-are tangible rewards, such as a new electronic gadgets or sport car
what are social reinforcers?
are signs of appreciation, approval, or love, such as loving books, affectionate hugs, and praise
what is difficult regarding reinforcement?
it lies in determining which incentive will be most effective
what are two types of reinforcement sources? (2)
-extrinsic rewards
-intrinsic reward s
what are extrinsic rewards?
-reinforcements that come from others
what are intrinsic rewards and how arise?
-as you see positive changes in yourself, you will begin to reward and reinforce yourself
what you should be aware of reinforcements?
to not overkill them because the more you use a reinforcement the soon will lose its power
what the journal technique is about? what are 3 things it benefits you?
-writing personal experiences, interpretations and results in a journal, notebook, or online in a blog is an important skill for behavior change
-you can log your activities, monitor your progress, record how you feel about it, and note ideas of improvement
what safeway is doing for its employees? (3) why they follow as example? what health fact is based this action?
-have gyms at work
-have a cafeteria that serves nutritious meals with calorie counts
-health plan that rewards healthy behavior
-follow the business model of automobile insurance industry, where driving record determines premium
-Burd (owner) says it all comes to this: 70% of health care costs are driven by behavior.
how safeway employers got involved in this? what are the benefits? (2) how the program is called? what have been the health care costs of safeway due to program? what is the base of the health care plan?
-employees volunteered to measure weight, blood pressure, cholesterol, and whether they smoke.
-score well, pay a lower premium; Improve over time, collect a rebate
-incentive program
-safeway’s health care costs have remained flat compared to a 40% jump for most other companies
-it is a health care plan where behavior really matters
what are some questions that healthy people 2020 explores? (2)
-what makes a person unhealthy vs healthy?
-how can we create a society in which society can live long and healthy lives?
what are the determinants of health? as healthy people 2020 states. list them (5)
-range of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health. These are:
-biology and genetic
-individual behavior
-social interactions and norms
-physical environment
-access to health services
what are determinants of health? examples (5)
-stress, discrimination, education, unemployment, housing
healthy people 2020 places new emphasis on _. (what specific determinant) why?
-social determinants of health, while continuing to address the full range of determinants.
-health starts in our homes, schools and communities
public health interventions typically target_through_ (3) what is the goal of these interventions?
-one or more determinants of health through information, policies, and programs
-each intervention is designed to produce a specific health outcome or outcomes
what are possible outcomes of public health interventions? this is at the core of _
-positive behavior change
-reduction in diseases, conditions, and risk factors
-fewer injuries
-improving well-being and health-related quality of life
-increased health equity and reduced health disparities
-Healthy people 2020 framework
every intervention has a life-cycle of its own, a continual process of improvement made of up 4 phases:_. Through this cycle, an intervention can be refined for_
-assessment
-monitoring
-evaluation
-dissemination
-refined fro greater effectiveness
healthy people 2020 places renewed emphases on _(3) what is its goal?
-determinants of health, healthy equity, healthy development through all stages of life and across the lifespan, healthy people 2020 provides a framework for a society in which all people can be healthy, both now and for generations to come
what word has become popular?
wellness
the origins of the word “wellness” are often traced to the works of who? what year?
-Dr. Halbert Dunn
-early 1960’s
what Dr. Dunn degrees were and what was his approach to health? what was his view of wellness?
-had a medical degree as well as considerable expertise in statistics
-his approach to health went beyond simply trying to eliminate disease. As statistician, much of his professional work involved documenting health trends
-In his view, the increase in life expectancy occurring in the 1950’s and the replacement of infectious diseases with cardiovascular disease and cancer as the primary cause of mortality made a focus on wellness “urgent”
what he stated in his document regarding wellness? (about elderly)
-the problems of elder citizens involve much more than just saving of life or curing chronic disease. The challenge at older ages is how to keep a person fit and functioning and contributing to society he dies
-much of possible chronic disease could be eliminated if physicians knew how to recognize various levels of wellness. In lower levels of wellness exists the precursors of future illness, it comes increasingly important to recognize levels of wellness
For Dunn, the World Health Organization definition of health, which is_, was essentially identical to his definition of _
-a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely absence of disease or infirmity
-high-level wellness
what was the definition of high-wellness for Dunn?
-an integrated method of functioning which is oriented toward maximizing the potential of which an individual is capable. It requires that the individual maintain a continuum balance and purposeful direction within the environmental where he [she] is functioning
Dunn particularly emphasized _(2) dimensions of wellness
-mental
-spiritual
in Dunn’s view, what high wellness required?
-high wellness required harmony among the three dimensions of wellness (physical, mind, and spiritual) and a view of these dimensions as an interrelated and interdependent whole
In sum, what are the core elements that continue to be represented in the contemporary concepts of wellness by Dunn’s work? (4)
1.Wellness is viewed as a continuum rather than a fixed, specific state. Everyone is located somewhere on the continuum between death and wellness and is heading in one direction or the other at any given time depending on their particular circumstances
2. Wellness is considered a holistic approach to health; thus includes physical, mental, social. cultural, and spiritual dimensions
3. wellness is about potential and involves helping people progress toward the highest level of well-being of which he or she is capable
4. self-knowledge and self-integration are key to progressing toward high-level wellness
the growth of wellness movement was in what year and by who?
-1970’s
-John Travis
How Travis, who had expertise in public health similar to Dunn, played a fundamental role in further developing the focus of wellness and health and lifestyle behaviors?
Travis developed “Wellness Inventory”
what is the function of Wellness Inventory by John Travis?
-an assessment of an individuals level of wellness on 12 dimensions
list the 12 dimensions of Wellness Inventory
1. Self-responsibility and love
2. Breathing
3. Sensing
4. Eating
5. Moving
6. Feeling
7. Thinking
8. Playing and working
9. Communicating
10. Intimacy
11. Finding meaning
12. Transcending
one of Travis’ most significant contributions to contemporary views of wellness was_
his increased emphasis on individual responsibility
what Travis’ wellness resource center focused on doing? (how helped people)
-helping clients to take responsibility of their own health
How Travis transformed Dunn’s ideas? what was Travis approach?
-While Dunn’s wellness philosophy was an important set of ideas without much practical application, Travis translated Dunn’s ideas into a program that included such individual lifestyle behaviors as “learning relaxation strategies, self-examination, communication training, coaching to encourage creativity, improved nutrition and fitness, visualization techniques, and the like”
-His approach was to emphasize how to help individuals know themselves better so that they could take better care of themselves
what was another significant figure in the growth of wellness movement?
-Donald Ardell
Donald Ardell was responsible for making wellness_. how?
-making wellness a household term
-Ardell has published books, wellness newsletter (the Ardell Wellness Report), developed wellness website, and founded a wellness center. His success has largely been a result of his more conversational style of writing about wellness concepts that are much more accessible to the lay reader
one impact of the work of both Travis and Ardell in 1970’s was the _
growth of campus wellness programs which played significant role in the development of the wellness movement
the first university wellness program was developed at_
unviersity of winsconsing-stevens point
what was used for the basis of the first university program? who created something that has been used as the model for campus wellness programs throughout country? how helped students?
-Travis’ wellness inventory was initially used as the basis of the program
-Building on Travis’ work, Bill Hettler developed a Lifestyle Assessment Questionnaire that has been used as the model for campus wellness programs throughout the country to help students assess their level of wellness and encourage long term healthy behavior
what institute arose in University of Winsconsin-Stevens Point?
-National Wellness Institute
with the wellness movement well underway at the end of 1970’s, wellness programs began to be offered by_.(3) explain how
-worksites began to offer wellness programs based on Ardell’s broad range of lifestyle wellness behaviors and began to explore the use of incentives (monetary rewards) to encourage the adoption of healthy behaviors
-schools began to add wellness into their cirricula
-state and local governments began to develop programs to actively promote wellness as a way to addressing rising health care costs
_was dubbed one of the 10 most important new developments that would shape people’s lives for decades to come
wellness
what popular things became more popular as wellness became more popular and awareness of the benefits of lifestyle change increased? (2)
-lifestyle physical activities like jogging, weight training, aerobic
-nutritional awareness moved beyond
what parts wellness programs that address a broad range of lifestyle health behaviors have proliferated? (5)
-campuses
-schools
-worksites
-clinics
-various levels of government focused on community and population health
the difficulty of arriving at a clear contemporary definition of wellness center around whether is viewed as_(2)
-state of being
-means of improving health
what is one of the more popularly cited definitions of wellness that comes from Corbin and Pangrazi of ASU?
-wellness is a multidimensional state of being describing the existence of positive health in an individual as exemplified by quality of life and a sense of well-being
Donatelle book (our book) definition for wellness is
-the achievement of the highest level of health possible in each of several dimensions
The previous two definitions imply what about wellness? (4)
1. wellness involves many dimensions of health (physical, emotional, social, spiritual)
2. wellness is a state that occurs as a result of healthy behaviors
3. the primary characterization of wellness is quality of life reflected by a sense of well-being, happiness, and life satisfaction
4. wellness is something possessed by the individual
what is the definition of wellness by The Joint Committee on Health Education Promotion Terminology? why this definition is important?
-an approach to health that focuses on balancing the many aspects, or dimensions, of a person’s life through adoption of health-enhancing conditions and behaviors rather than attempting to minimize conditions of illness
-this definition is important because it clearly focuses on the development of health enhancing behaviors that move toward increasing balance among the many dimensions of health (rather than merely trying to prevent illness)
summarize the strong disucssion of Corbin and Pangrazi on what wellness is not (3)
1. wellness is not the same as physical fitness. Fitness, while important for reducing the risk of illness and death and enhancing cognitive functioning, is neither health nor wellness but is simply a factor to both. Poor health an occur in physical fit individuals as a result of factors beyond their control
2. wellness is what you are, not what you do. while the adoption of lifestyle behaviors is critical, it is important to remember that these behaviors are important because they promote good health and wellness not because they describe or characterize whether someone is well. There is a danger in interpreting someone’s wellness based solely on whether they are adhering to a particular list of behaviors deemed to be good for health.
Wellness is a continuum and someone can be moving in a positive or negative direction along the continuum regardless of whether or not he/she is ill
3. Finally, given the popularization of the term wellness in recent years, it is critical to recognize that wellness is not some form of complementary or alternative medicine
how wellness has become a buzz word in popular culture? use example of entrepreneurs that use it
-entrepreneurs have adopted the term wellness in the promotion of a variety of products and services. Often the implication is that by using their product or programs someone is then “well”
in popular culture, wellness has also been associated with_. Think about how spa industry uses the term wellness
-beauty
-pleasure
-status
-associating wellness with spa industry
conclusion, wellness is_not_
-state of being not a treatment
what is the social-ecological perspective of wellness?
-it focuses on interactions and interdependence factors that influence wellness across multiple levels
-this model suggest that individual wellness is influenced, not only by an individual’s own behavior, but also by interactions with the physical and socio-cultural environment in which they live
how the social-ecological perspective of wellness is consistent with Duun’s definition?
-his definition of high level wellness states: an integrated method of functioning which is oriented toward maximizing the potential of which an individual is capable. it requires that the individual maintain a continuum of balance and purposeful direction within the environment where he is functioning
what are the 4 levels of the social-ecological model that affect wellness?
1. individual factors
2. Interpersonal factors: social, family, and community networks
*social and physical conditions and policies:
3. living and working conditions
4. broad conditions and policies
what is the most basic level of influence on wellness and why?
individual is the most basic level of influence on wellness and is where wellness resides
how individual level can affect wellness?
-while healthy behavior is not wellness, it is clear that behavior can influence our level of wellness
list some individual factors that influence our level of wellness (15)
-motivation
-readiness
-beliefs
-knowledge
-attitudes
-intentions
-self-concept and self-esteem
-optimism
-personality
-resilience
-self-regulation
-attention
-awareness
what interpersonal factors that affect wellness consists of?
-individuals live their daily lives within social environments, and are thus influenced by that as well
ex: friends, family, roomates, coworkers, and health professionals can have impact on both behavior and wellness
what factors within interpersonal factor affect wellness? (5)
-thoughts
-behavior
-advice
-opinions
-support
of people around an individual influence his feelings and behavior
_is a critical dimension of wellness
social relationships
From social-ecological perspective, how the layers are interelated?
-each layer is impacted by the next layer of influences
-the individual behavior and wellness are influenced by social relationships and networks which are also influenced by the norms, regulations, and policies within our neighborhoods, communities, organizations, and local, state, and federal government
what are examples of social and physical conditions and policies factors that influence good and healthy behavior, reduce stress, enhance social networks, and increase individual wellness? (7)
-access to affordable quality, nutritious food in schools, workplaces, and grocery stores
-safe and socially connected neighborhoods
-living wages
-health care and other benefits
-family friendly policies at work
-access to sidewalks, bike paths, parks, recreation facilities, and mass transit
-access to safe, quality schools and higher education
as summary, wellness is perhaps best understood as_
the positive health, quality of life,and sense of well-being that is created by the adoption of patterns of healthy behavior as well as the health supportive social,community and policy conditions within which individuals are living
achieving high level of wellness is responsible of and affected by_(7)
-individual
-social factors
-neighborhood factors
-community factors
-organizational factors
-economic factors
-policy factors
what is healthy people? (healthy people 2020)
-is a set of goals and objectives with 10-year targets designed to guide national health promotion and disease prevention efforts to improve health of all people in the United States
who released healthy people every decade?
US department of health and human services
healthy people reflects the idea that_(what is effective?)
setting objectives and providing science-based benchmarks to track and monitor progress can motivate and focus action
Healthy People 2020 is _generation of this initiative, building foundation of _decades of work (all answers are times)
-4th generation
-3 decades of work
how Healthy People is sued as a tool by the federal government, states, communities, and many other public- and private-sector partners?
it is used as a tool for strategic management
the comprehensive set of _(2) of Healthy People is used to _, and serves as_(2)
-objective and targets
-measure progress for health issues in specific populations
-serves as (1) foundation for prevention and wellness activities across various sectors and within the federal government, and (2) a model for measurement at the state and local levels
Healthy People 2020 is committed to what vision?
is committed to the vision of a society in which all people live long, healthy lives
what new features added will help to make the vision of Healthy People in Healthy People 2020 a reality? (3)
1. emphasizing idea of healthy equity that addresses social determinants of health and promote health across all stages of life
2. Replacing the traditional print publication with an interactive Web site as the main vehicle for dissemination
3. Maintaining a Web site that allows users to tailor information to their needs and explore evidence-based resources for implementation
what is the mission of Healthy People 2020? (5)
Healthy People 2020 strives to:
-ID nationwide health improvement priorities
-increase public awareness and understanding of the determinants of health, disease, and disability, and the opportunities of progress
-Provide measurable objectives and goals that are applicable at the national, state, and local levels
-Engage multiple sectors to take actions to strengthen policies and improve practices that are driven by the best available evidence of knowledge
-ID critical research, evaluation, and data collection needs
Identify the 4 national goals in Healthy People 2020
1. attain high quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death
2. Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups
3. Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all
4. Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages
what is the foundation measures category of the following goal: attain high quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death?
general health status
what is the foundation measures category of the following goal: Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups?
disparities and inequity
what is the foundation measures category of the following goal: Create social and physical
environments that
promote good health
for all?
Social Determinants
of Health
what is the foundation measures category of the following goal: Promote quality of life,
healthy development, and
healthy behaviors across
all life stages?
Health-Related Quality
of Life and Well-Being
what are the health determinants? as stated by Healthy People 2020? (3)
-Social and economic factors
– Natural and built environments
– Policies and programs
Healthy People 2020 includes a small set of high-priority health issues that represent significant threats to the public’s
health. Selected from the Healthy People 2020 objectives, the 26 _, organized under 12
topic areas, address _
-Leading Health Indicators (LHIs)
-determinants of health that promote quality of life, healthy behaviors, and healthy development
across all life stages.
*You can see them in Health People 2020 brochure*
how the Healthy People 2020 LHIs were selected?
The Healthy People 2020 LHIs were selected and organized using a health determinants and health outcomes by life
stages conceptual framework. This approach is intended to draw attention to “upstream” determinants that affect
the public’s health and contribute to health disparities from infancy through old age, thereby highlighting strategic
opportunities to improve health and quality of life for all Americans.
LHIs will be examined using_ (2). why?
-health determinants perspective because addressing determinants
is key to improving health disparities and overall population health.
-The LHIs will also be examined using a life stages perspective. This approach recognizes that specific disease
outcomes, risk factors, and health determinants need to be addressed at various stages across the lifespan and
highlights the importance of tailoring strategies to fit a particular age group.
The LHIs are intended to motivate action at what levels?
The LHIs are intended to motivate action at the national, State, and local levels, as well as among individuals, families,
and communities.
While health is not totally within our control, certain _will affect us positively and reduce future health risks
behavior choices
why there are so many variations in our perception of health definition?
are due to an increasingly enlightened way of viewing health that has taken shape over time.
what was the first definition of health?
the concept of health means much more than just not being ill.
the definition of health has progressively evolved into a concept known as _
wellness
what wellness refers to?
Wellness refers to the ever-changing process of achieving one’s potential in six interrelated dimensions of health: physical, social, intellectual, emotional, environmental, and spiritual.
what determines the dimension of health: physical health?
One’s ability to perform these functions (activities of daily living) determines their physical health.
in what health dimension hobbies fit into?
intellectual health
The U. S. Surgeon General’s Healthy People 2010 initiative places an emphasis on _(2)
The U. S. Surgeon General’s Healthy People 2010 initiative places an emphasis on health promotion and disease prevention
How Healthy people 2010 can help individuals reduce preventable lifestyle behaviors that could lead to chronic disease? give example
The Healthy People 2010 initiative provides educational and financial support to help individuals reduce preventable lifestyle behaviors that could lead to chronic disease. For example, the government may fund community programs that encourage people to loose weight in order to lower their risk for diabetes and heart disease.
why changing bad habits into healthy habits matters right now? why it is important to make wise health decisions?
The lifestyle choices we make now will affect our health years from now.
the strategy to control the situation to have a behavior change uses_. example?
-Situational inducement
-For example, you may be more apt to stop smoking if you work in a smoke-free office.
How can you set a realistic health goal? (4)
First, decide your ultimate goal. If there is more than one behavior you’d like to change, pick the behavior you’d like to change the most to work on. If you try to change several things at once, you may be overwhelmed and not accomplish any of your goals. Next, look at potential positive outcomes. Now consider any health resources available to you. And, finally, ask friends and family for help.
What is an example of our ability to perform everyday tasks, such as walking up the stairs? Is it: (a) physical health; or (b) activities of daily living?
The answer is B – Activities of daily living include those tasks necessary for normal existence in today’s society.
Janice describes herself as confident and trusting, and she displays both high self-esteem and self-efficacy. The dimension of health this relates to is (a) emotional or (b) intellectual.
The answer is A – Emotional health refers to the ability to express emotions when they are appropriate, controlling them when they are not, and avoiding expressing them inappropriately.
Because Craig’s parents smoked, he is 90 percent more likely to start smoking than someone whose parents didn’t. This is an example of what factor influencing behavior change? Is it a (a) reinforcing factor or (b) predisposing factor?
The answer is B – predisposing factor. Factors that may predispose us to certain conditions include age, sex, race, income, family background, educational background, and access to health care. See page 18 for more information on this topic.
Suppose you want to lose 20 pounds. To reach your goal, you take small steps to gradually lose weight. You start by joining a support group and count calories. After two weeks, you begin an exercise program and gradually build up to your desired fitness level. What behavior-change strategy are you using? Is it (a) shaping or (b) modeling?
The answer is A – shaping
After Jimmy and Elaine pay their bills they reward themselves by watching TV together. What type of positive reinforcer motivates them to pay their bills. Is it a (a) manipulative reinforcer or (b) activity reinforcer?
The answer is B – activity reinforcer. An activity reinforcer is an opportunity to do something that is enjoyable.
What statistic is used to describe the number of new cases of AIDS in 2005? Is it (a) incidence or (b) morbidity?
The answer is C – incidence. Incidence refers to the number of new cases in a given time period.
Absence of illness is an adequate description of health. True or False?
The answer is False. Health also includes the dimensions of wellness: physical, social, environmental, spiritual, emotional, and intellectual.
One of the goals of the Healthy People 2010 public health initiative is to eliminate health disparities. True or False?
The answer is True.
Enabling factors often include skills that are use in making health decisions. True or False?
True
Being able to perform the activities of daily living is an example, to some degree, of physical health. True or False?
The answer is True. Our ability to perform successfully activities of daily living is a characteristic of physical health.
In the early 1900s, the leading causes of death in the United States were (a) infectious diseases or (b) natural disasters.
The answer is A – infectious diseases.
Life expectancy in the United States has increased significantly since the early 1900s because of (a) globalization issues or (b) better advances in sanitation and medical care.
The answer is B – better advances in sanitation and medical care.
Spiritual health could best be described as (a) related to one’s purpose in life or (b) exclusive to religiosity.
The answer is A – related to one’s purpose in life.
Recognition of tobacco as a health hazard is (a) only important for young people or (b) one of the ten greatest public health achievements of the 20th century.
The answer is B – one of the ten greatest public health achievements of the 20th century.
Taking positive action now to avoid becoming sick later is known as (a) health intervention or (b) prevention.
The answer is B – prevention.
Health promotion (a) focuses on curing illness and disease or (b) includes organizational and financial supports to promote health.
The answer is B – includes organizational and financial supports to promote health.
A high membership cost at a local gym might serve as a (a) positive enabler or (b) negative enabler.
The answer is B – negative enabler.
The leading cause of death for Americans is (a) cancer or (b) heart disease.
The answer is B – heart disease.
Many athletes use this strategy to visualize attainment of goals. Is it (a) imagined rehearsal or (b) athletic imagery?
The answer is A – imagined rehearsal.
In order to change problem behaviors, one should (a) consider the possible negative outcomes or (b) set realistic goals.
The answer is B – set realistic goals.
what is countering? give examples
Countering is replacing a habit you do not like with one that you do. Sometimes you see people chewing on cinnamon sticks because they want to stop smoking. Acoholics will substitute club soda for their acoholic drink of choice.
Since the early 1900s, the average life expectancy in the United States has
nearly doubled
The leading causes of death among the overall population of the United States are __________.(3)
heart disease, cancer, and respiratory disease