CCNA 1 V5.0 Chapter 2

Explain the purpose of a subnet mask in IPv4.
Determines which part of a larger network is used by an IP address
What is a virtual interface?
Used to navigate to the interface configuration mode from the global configuration mode.
What are the differences between various types of media.
Distance the media can successfully carry a signal Environment in which the media is to be installed Amount of data and the speed at which it must be transmitted Cost of the media and installation
Explain in detail what a switch virtual interface (SVIs) is.
These are virtual interfaces, because there is no physical hardware on the device associated with it; an SVI is created in software. The virtual interface provides a means to remotely manage a switch over a network using IPv4. Each switch comes with one SVI appearing in the default configuration “out-of-the-box.” The default SVI is interface VLAN1.
What is required to remotely access a switch using SVI?
IP & Subnet needs to be configured.
What is a default gateway?
he default gateway address is the IP address of the router interface used for network traffic to exit the local network. The default gateway is an IP address that is often assigned by the network administrator and is used when traffic must be routed to another network.
What is the purpose of a DNS server?
It translate the IP address to a worded web address.
What does DHCP do?
Automacticly assigns devices a new IP addre.
Which devices typically use static IP addressing instead of DHCP?
Printers, Servers, Routers
What is the ping 127.0.0.1 command used for?
Its a loopback. This verifys that your nic is working.
What is the purpose of using the show ip interface brief command on a switch or router?
to verify the condition of the switch.
Router
Forwards data packets to and receives data packets from the Internet.
Switch
Connects end devices using network cables
Wireless access point
Consists of a radio transmitter capable of connecting end devices wirelessly
Firewall appliance
Secures outgoing traffic and restricts incoming traffic.
What are the options that are available after making changes to the running configuration?
Return the device to its original configuration, Remove all configurations from the device, Make the changed configuration the new startup configuration.
What is the startup configuration file?
The startup configuration file reflects the configuration that will be used by the device upon reboot. The startup configuration file is stored in NVRAM.
Where is the startup configuration file stored?
NVRAM
What commands are necessary to delete the startup configuration file on a router and return it to its factory default settings?
erase startup-config delete vlan.dat reload
What commands are needed to remove the startup file from a switch and return it to its factory default settings?
erase startup config, delete vlan.dat and reload
In addition to saving running configurations to the startup configuration, configuration files can also be saved and archived to a text document. What is the advantage of doing this?
Quicker Restore of the device.
Home routers are four devices in one. List them.
Router, Switch, Wireless Access Point and firewall.
Router
Forwards data packets to and receives data packets from the Internet.
Switch
Connects end devices using network cables
Wireless access point
Consists of a radio transmitter capable of connecting end devices wirelessly
Firewall appliance
Secures outgoing traffic and restricts incoming traffic
Explain what the Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS) refers to?
The Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS) is a generic term for the collection of network operating systems used on Cisco networking devices. Cisco IOS is used for most Cisco devices regardless of the type or size of the device.
The operating system involves three areas. List them.
Shell, Kernal, and Hardware
Shell
The user interface that allows users to request specific tasks from the computer. These requests can be made either through the CLI or GUI interfaces.
Kernal
Kernel: Communicates between the hardware and software of a computer and manages how hardware resources are used to meet software requirements.
Hardware
The physical part of a computer including underlying electronics.
A user can interact with the shell using either of two methods. What are they?
CLI & GUI.
CLI
Command-line Interface – text-based evnironment by entering commands on the keyboard at a prompt
GUI
Graphical User Interface – interact with the system in an environment that uses graphical images, multimedia, and text
What is the most common method used to access the Cisco IOS?
GUI
Where is the Cisco IOS stored?
is stored in a semi-permanent memory area called flash
Why is the IOS kept in non-volatile storage?
To prevent loss of software during a power outage.
Where is the IOS loaded when the device is powered on?
from flash into random access memory (RAM)
Before upgrading an IOS on a device what two things have to be considered?
The quantity of flash memory and RAM memory required for a given IOS varies dramatically
List the major functions performed or enabled by Cisco routers and switches.
Providing network security, IP addressing of virtual and physical interfaces, and Enabling interface-specific configurations to optimize connectivity of the respective media, Routing, Enabling quality of service (QoS) technologies, Supporting network management technologies
What is the advantage of having a Cisco Connection Online (CCO) account?
wealth of information available regarding Cisco products and services.
What are the three most common ways to access the CLI?
Console, Telnet/SSH and AUX port
What is a console port?
The console port is a management port that provides out-of-band access to Cisco device.
What is Out-of-band access?
dedicated management channel that is used for device maintenance purposes only.
What is the advantage of using a console port?
device is accessible even if no networking services have been configured, such as when performing an initial configuration of the networking device
Explain why should networking devices should always be located in a locked room?
prevent unauthorized physical access
Explain how accessing the CLI with telnet differs from using the console port?
Telnet sessions require active networking services on the device. The network device must have at least one active interface configured with an Internet address, such as an IPv4 address.
Why is SSH a better choice than telnet to access the CLI?
similar to Telnet, except that it uses more secure network services. SSH provides stronger password authentication than Telnet and uses encryption when transporting session data
Like the Console port, the AUX port is also an out-of-band connection and does not require any networking services to be configured or available on the device. In what other ways is the AUX port different than using the Console port?
Aux port allows a modem remote connection. However, the console port is preferred over the AUX port for troubleshooting because it displays startup, debugging, and error messages by default
List the terminal emulation programs shown in the curriculum.
PuTTY, Tera Term, SecureCRT, HyperTerminal, & OS X Terminal
In hierarchical order from most basic to most specialized, list the major CLI modes.
1. User executive (User EXEC) mode 2. Privileged executive (Privileged EXEC) mode 3. Global configuration mode 4.Other specific configuration modes, such as interface configuration mod
Which CLI mode is designed to allow a technician to configure settings on the device that affect the device as a whole?
Global configuration mode
List and explain the two primary CLI modes of operation.
EXEC mode and privileged EXEC mode
What is the default router User EXEC mode prompt?
Switch> – no required user authentication
What is the default switch Privileged EXEC mode prompt?
Switch#
What is the command to move the device from privileged EXEC mode to global configuration mode?
Switch# configure terminal
What is the default router global configuration mode prompt?
Switch(config)#
What command is used to enter Privileged EXEC Mode from the User EXEC mode?
enable and disable
Based on the sample command shown explain the output results from the “clock set ?”
HELP setting for the clock
List the three different types of error messages.
Ambiguous command, Incomplete command and Incorrect command
Short Cut Commands: Down Arrow
Allows the user to scroll forward through former commands
Short Cut Commands: Up Arrow
Allows the user to scroll backward through former commands
Short Cut Commands: Tab
Completes the remainder of a partially typed command or keyword
Short Cut Commands: Ctrl-Z
Exits config mode & returns to user EXEC
Short Cut Commands: Ctrl-C
exits the config mode OR aborts current command
What does the Router#show running-config command display?
Displays the contents of the currently running configuration file.
When a command returns more output than can be displayed on a single screen, the –More– prompt appears at the bottom of the screen. List and explain two keyboard options you can use to continue the output on the screen.
Space Bar = next portion of output Enter = Next line
What does the Router# show version command display?
IOS software version (stored in flash)
Why is a Cisco IOS switch one of the simplest devices that can be configured on a network?
o configurations that are required prior to the device functioning. At its most basic, a switch can be plugged in with no configuration, but it will still switch data between connected devices.
Explain in detail why it is important to name all your networking devices.
So you can identify the device during the configuration purposes.
What are the recommended guidelines for naming conventions?
Start with a letter, Contain no spaces, End with a letter or digit, Use only letters, digits, and dashes, and Be less than 64 characters in length
What CLI command keyword will undo or remove the effects of a command?
To undo the effects of a command, preface the command with the no keyword.
What is the primary defense against unauthorized access to network devices?
use of passwords
Enable password
Limits access to the privileged EXEC mode
Enable secret
Encrypted, limits access to the privileged EXEC mode
Console password –
Limits device access using the console connection
VTY password
Limits device access over Telnet
What commands are required to install a password on a routers console port?
line console 0, password cisco, login and exit
Review the following set of CLI commands used to protect telnet access. What do the numbers 0 15 indicate?
Switch(config)# line vty 0 15
Switch(config-line)# password cisco
Switch(config-line)# login
“setting vty lines. 5 is common”
If the command was Switch(config)# line vty 0 4 what would this indicate?
No password was set
Explain in detail what the service password encryption command does?
it applies a weak encryption to all unencprted passwords on the configuration file. It prevents unauthroized folks from seeing passwords in the configuration file.
Explain why are banners an important?
it acts like a flag. It a mean to declare you are not welcome and go away.
Examine the CLI command shown. Switch(config)# banner motd # Authorized Users Only! # Explain the banner motd delimiting character?
It means the beggining and the end of the text of the banner.
What is the running configuration?
the running configuration file reflects the current configuration applied to a Cisco IOS device. It contains the commands used to determine how the device operates on the network. Effects the device immideatly.
Where is the running configuration file stored while in use?
RAM
Ambiguous command
not enough characters to come up with a soloution
Incomplete command
missing required keywords/augmentations
Incorrect command
entered the command incorrectly. you will have a carrot pointing the error.
Router
Forwards data packets to and receives data packets from the Internet.
Switch
Connects end devices using network cables
Wireless access point
Consists of a radio transmitter capable of connecting end devices wirelessly
Firewall appliance
Secures outgoing traffic and restricts incoming traffic