case management HUS 209

assessment
appraisal or evaluation of a situation, the people involved or both. Pg. 144
Clients
those who meet eligibility criteria to be accepted for services.Pg.147
Applicant:
potential clients who seek available services.
Interview:
usually the first face-to-face meeting between a helper and an applicant for services.
The interview’s structure refers to the arrangement of its three parts: Beginning:
a time to establish common understanding. Important activities include greeting the client, establishing focus, clarifying roles and exploring presenting problems.
The interview’s structure refers to the arrangement of its three parts: Middle
devoted to developing the focus of the relationship between the case manager and applicant. Sharing and considering feelings, behaviors, events, and strengths. Assessment, planning and implementation also take place.
The interview’s structure refers to the arrangement of its three parts: End
the case manager and the applicant have an opportunity to summarize what has occurred during the initial meeting.
Structured interview:
directive and focused; usually guided by a form or set of questions that elicit specific information. The purpose is to develop a brief overview of the problem and the context within which it is occurring.
Intake interview:
a type of structured interview usually in the form of an application.
Mental status exam:
consists of questions designed to evaluate the person’s current mental status by considering factors such as appearance, behavior, and general intellectual processes.
Unstructured interview:
a sequence of questions that follow from what has been said. The applicant determines the direction of the interaction, while the case manager focuses on giving reflective responses that encourage the eliciting of information.
Confidentiality:
communication held in confidence or trust.
Privileged communication:
a legal concept under which clients’ “privileged” communications with professionals may not be used in court without client consent (Corey et al., 2011).
-During a face-to-face contact with a client, the case manager should focus on what?
Pg. 149= content of interview is what is said and the process of how it is said.
•PP5#4=The interview is an opportunity for the case manager and applicant to get to know one another, define the person’s need or problem, and give some structure to the helping relationship.
• Interviewing is a critical tool for communicating with clients, collecting information, determining eligibility, and developing and implementing service plans.
• Desirable outcomes include establishing rapport, ensuring that the applicant feels understood and accepted, and giving the opportunity to talk about concerns and goals.
•PP5#9=The initial focus on information gathering and assessment narrows to problem identification and the determination of eligibility for services.
-Review the different ways individuals learn about services (i.e. informal network, referral source, etc.)
•pg. 144-145= informal help-ask for help from friends, family, parents, doctor, pastor, children and even strangers.
•Informal networks-Family, friends, neighbors, acquaintances and fellow employees who have had similar problems.
•Referral sources- self, professional, and physicians
oMost common referrals- (mandated services) courts, schools, prisons, protective services, marriage counselors, and juvenile justice system
-What is the first contact between the helper and the applicant?
Pg. 148= interview
-What is the difference between a structured and unstructured interview?
PP5#7=Structured interview: directive and focused; usually guided by a form or set of questions that elicit specific information. The purpose is to develop a brief overview of the problem and the context within which it is occurring.
Unstructured interview: a sequence of questions that follow from what has been said. The applicant determines the direction of the interaction, while the case manager focuses on giving reflective responses that encourage the eliciting of information
-What is privileged communication?
PP5#8=Privileged communication: a legal concept under which clients’ “privileged” communications with professionals may not be used in court without client consent (Corey et al., 2011).
-Following the initial focus in gathering information, the case manager should begin to focus on what?
PP5#9= The initial focus on information gathering and assessment narrows to problem identification and the determination of eligibility for services.
Pg. 148-determine eligibility and developing and implementing service plan.
-The format of staff notes, or case notes, usually depends on what?
Pg. 165= Particular agencies
-Review SOAP – what each letter stands for and what should be placed under those headings?
PP5#15= SOAP: a case note format; SOAP is an acronym for subjective, objective, assessment, and plan.
-What is the main purpose of an intake interview?
Pg. 174= to obtain an understanding of the problem, the situation, and the applicant.
-How does the case manager communicate a helping attitude?
PP6#3- • Attitudes and characteristics as an interviewer are particularly important during the initial interview because this meeting marks the beginning of the helping relationship.
• Two critical attitudes for interviewing relates to the self (self-awareness and personal congruence) and how one treats another person (respect, empathy and cultural sensitivity).
• Helping attitudes are communicated in several ways: greeting, eye contact, facial expressions, and friendly responses.
-Why is it important to allow the physical arrangement of furniture to be at right angles without tables or desks between the case manager and the individual client during an intake interview?
PP6#4& Pg. 176=This positive climate should be matched by a physical setting that ensures confidentiality, eliminates physical barriers, promotes dialogue, and minimizes disruptions.
-SOLER – what does each letter stand for?
PP6#13= • Example set of guidelines for the
S- SQUARELY: adopt a posture that indicates involvement.
O- OPEN posture; crossed arms and crossed legs
L- LEAN toward the other.
E- EYE contact.
R- RELAXED.
-How is questioning used in an intake interview?
Pg. 186- it is important technique for eliciting information, which is a primary purpose of intake interviewing.
-When are closed inquiries appropriate during an intake interview?
PP6#15= Closed questions: questions that elicit facts; responses may be yes, no, or a simple factual statement. A series of closed questions may cause the client to feel defensive, sensing an interrogation rather than an offer of help.
Pg.193= if specific information is desired, closed questions are appropriate.
-What is summarizing?
Summarizing: concise, accurate, and timely summing up of the client’s statements.
• Can be used to review past material, when a number of topics have been raised, or to close the interview. Pg. 200= summarizing- interviewer provides a concise, accurate, and timely summing up of the client’s statements.
-What is paraphrasing?
PP6#17=Paraphrase: a restatement (in different words) of the main idea of what a client has just said. Pg. 198= paraphrase-this response is a restatement of the main idea of what the client has just said.
-During an intake interview, the client may lose confidence in the case manager if the case manager does what?
PP6#18= Premature problem solving: this arises from a desire to be helpful to the applicant by removing pain, the discomfort, or the problem itself. Undermines the client’s self-termination. Pg. 202= premature problem solving may cause the client to lose confidence in the case manager’s knowledge and skills, or to become impatient.
-What is the difference between an open inquiry and a closed inquiry?
PP6#15= Closed questions: questions that elicit facts; responses may be yes, no, or a simple factual statement. A series of closed questions may cause the client to feel defensive, sensing an interrogation rather than an offer of help. Open inquiries: broader questions; allow for the expression of thoughts, feelings, and ideas. • Open inquiries encourage the exploration and clarification of the client’s concerns.
-When working with clients who have a background of Spanish language and customs the case manager’s questioning should be what?
PP6#6=Spanish language and customs background: many cultures with this common background view informality as an important part of any activity, even the sharing of information. Fathers tend to perform the role of earning a living and establishing rules; mothers tend to assume more nurturing roles. Pg. 179- case manager should be sensitive to terminology and avoid stereotypes.
-What is the first task of the case manager when developing a plan for services?
PP7#3= • Before moving forward, the case manager needs to know if the problem has changed, if the same client resources are available, and if any shift in agency priorities has occurred. • The first area of concern involves a review of the relevant facts regarding the problem. Pg. 211= case manager will need to know if the problem has changed, if the same client resources are available, and if any shift in agency priorities has occurred.
-What is a goal?
PP7#6 & Pg. 213=Goals: statements that describe a state, condition or intent.
• Goals must be understood, so they should be well-stated and reasonable.
• To achieve this, the goal should be expressed in language that is clear and concise, the goal statement should be unambiguous, and the goal must be realistic and achievable.
• Goals are important because they increase the chance of solving the problem.
-After goals and objectives have been written and agreed upon, the case manager should then do what?
Pg. 222= it is time to begin thinking about delivery of services. PP7#8=• A well-developed plan provides information about what the service is, who will provide it, what the time frame is, and who has overall responsibility for service delivery.
-In setting up an information and referral system, the first task of the case manager is what?
Pg.222= to establish an information and referral system in the community.
-An effective information and referral system might include what components?
Pg.222= First component- social service directory, second component-feedback log, third component is staff training and networking. PP7#8= Information and referral system: developing and utilizing knowledge of the human services delivery system in the community.
-After service plans have been developed, what are two primary methods of collecting additional data?
PP7#11Pg. 228-233= • Two primary tools are available for data collection: interviewing and testing.
• The information is used to describe, to make predictions, or both.
• Each may occur in an individual or group situation.
-What is a structure clinical interview?
Pg. 226= consistent specific questions, as in a designated order, structured by guidelines to ensure that all clients are handled in the same way. PP7#11= Structured clinical interview: consists of specific questions, asked in a designated order. Structured by guidelines to ensure all clients are handled in the same way.
-What is a case history interview?
PP7#12= Case history interview: a more comprehensive interview that includes open-ended and specific questions. • Topics may include a chronology of major events, the family history, work history, and medical history. Sources of error: sources of potential bias in the instrument itself or in the interviewer. • Awareness of these sources enables the case manager to compensate for any resulting distortions. Pg. 227= a more comprehensive interview.
-What is achievement test?
PP7#15 & Pg.232= Achievement tests: used to evaluate an individual’s present level of functioning or what has previously been learned.
-What is validity?
PP7#17 & pg. 235= • Validity, the most important of these, is the extent to which a test measures what we actually wish to measure.
-What are advantages of computer-assisted test administration?
Pg. 237= there are two advantages to testing by computer: 1. Standardization of administration and scoring. 2. Bias control.
-When working with people who have disabilities, medical knowledge is important because…
PP8#5= • The case manager needs to understand medical terminology, the skills of specialists in diagnostic study and treatment programs, and the effects of disability on a client. Pg. 249= helpful. We the client has a medical problem or is currently receiving treatment from a physician, who may provide important information about a social and psychological aspect of the case. In addition to the medical aspects.
-What is a medical evaluation?
PP8#3= • Knowledge of medical terminology, conditions, treatments, and limitations is important in understanding a case. • Medical information may be provided on a form or in a written report. • Agencies approach medical information in different ways. • Medical evaluations include recommendations including the individual’s physical, emotional, and intellectual capacities. • It is important when referring a client for a medical exam the case manager prepare the client for that experience. This is especially critical from a multicultural perspective.
-What are some advantages of completing a social history with a client?
PP8#12 & Pg. 263= • Advantages include: completes the picture of a client, may provide a better assessment of the client’s needs, may fulfill legal requirements, and can help build the relationship.
-What is a psychological report,
PP8#10 & Pg. 261= Psychological report: a written document that explains an individual’s personal characteristics, mental status, and social history. • This document provides information that helps to determine what are the problems and challenges facing the client and what might be possible interventions.
-What is a social history
PP #12 & Pg. 263= Social history: provides information about the way an individual experiences problems, past problem-solving behaviors, developmental stages, and interpersonal relationships.
-What is a vocational evaluation?
PP#14 =Vocational= • Vocational information may include jobs previously held, the ability to get along with coworkers, work habits, and reasons for frequent changes in employment. • This additional information rounds out the case managers understanding of who the client is — strengths, weaknesses, abilities, and aptitudes. Pg. 286= vocational information can be important for several reasons. People seem to be happy is when their activities are satisfying and fulfill their needs. This is the need to earn a living and self-support often engender self-respect.
-What should the case manager do when making a referral for psychological evaluations?
PP8#9 & Pg. 260= Psychological evaluation: a behavioral or mental health evaluation that contributes to the understanding of the client.
• Case managers may refer clients for psychological evaluations for a number of reasons: • To establish a diagnosis in order to meet criteria of eligibility for services. • To provide justification for a particular service. • To obtain information about a client’s personality, aptitude, interests, intelligence, and achievement. • To resolve contradictions or ambiguities or to add information that is missing. • To answer particular questions regarding the client. • Part of making a successful referral is preparing the client for the psychological evaluation.
-What is the prefix in medical terminology?
Prefix – the word element located at the beginning of a word. • To work out the meaning of a term: identify the suffix and its meaning, find the prefix (if any) and determine what it means, and identify the root words and their meanings.
Prefix is a word element located at the beginning of a word that usually denotes number, time, position, direction, or negation.
-What is the suffix in medical terminology?
Suffix – the word ending Pg. 255-256= suffix is a word ending usually denoting a procedure, condition, or disease.
-What is reliability?
• Reliability is the (2nd) degree of consistency with which a test measures whatever it is measuring — the degree to which test scores are free from errors of measurement.
What is aptitude tests?
Aptitude tests: provide an indication of an individual’s potential for learning or acquiring a skill.
What is personality tests?
Pg. 233= Typical performance tests: give an idea of what the examinee is like (such as interest or personality inventories).
-What is an objective?
PP7#7 & Pg. 217= Objective: an intended result of service provision rather than the service itself.
• Objectives are useful because they tell us where we are going, they give the client guidance in organizing efforts, and they state the criteria for acceptable performance.
• Objectives make evaluation possible; they provide the standards by which progress is monitored.
• Writing clearly-defined objectives benefits the client, the case manager, and the agency
-What is the difference between process recording and summary recording?
•PP5#12= Process recording: a narrative telling of an interaction with another individual.
• This shows what each participant has said by an accurate account of the verbal exchange, a factual description of any action or nonverbal behavior, and the interviewer’s analysis and observations.
• Most often used in one-to-one interviews and includes identifying information, observations, content account, recorder’s feelings and reactions, and impressions.• PP5#13= Summary recording: a condensation of what happened; an organized presentation of facts.
• Summary recording differs from process recording in several ways: concise presentation of the interview content rather than an extensive account; focus remains on the client; contains a summary section; and is organized by topic rather than chronologically.
• Preferred in most human service agencies.
• Less time-consuming to write; easier to read