Business Research Ch 4

The problem or opportunity that requires a business decision is called the _____.

A. research question

B. management-research-question hierarchy

C. management dilemma

D. management question

E. investigative question

C. management dilemma
The process of stating the basic dilemma and then developing other questions by progressively breaking down the original question into more specific ones is called the _____.

A. research question

B. management-research-question hierarchy

C. management dilemma

D. management question

E. investigative question

B. management-research-question hierarchy
Participants in a research study are asked _____ questions.

A. research

B. management

C. measurement

D. investigative

E. dilemma

C. measurement
Who answers measurement questions?

A. Management decision makers

B. Researchers

C. Field workers

D. Participants

E. Statisticians

D. Participants
Who answers investigative questions?

A. Management decision makers

B. Researchers

C. Field workers

D. Participants

E. Statisticians

B. Researchers
To satisfactorily answer a research question, researchers must first answer _____ questions.

A. management

B. investigative

C. measurement

D. dilemma

E. deductive

B. investigative
Which form of budgeting involves taking a fixed percentage of some criterion such as sales as the basis for the research budget?

A. Rule-of-thumb budgeting

B. Percentage-of-sales budgeting

C. Departmental budgeting

D. Task budgeting

E. functional-area budgeting

A. Rule-of-thumb budgeting
Which form of budgeting allocates a portion of total expenditures in the unit to research activities?

A. Rule-of-thumb budgeting

B. Percentage-of-sales budgeting

C. Departmental budgeting

D. Task budgeting

E. Competitive parity

C. Departmental budgeting
Departmental budgeting means that research budgets are determined by _____.

A. allocating the same amount to research that competing firms allocate

B. the contributions of various departments to fund department-specific projects

C. evaluating projects on a case-by-case basis

D. taking a fixed percentage of some criterion

E. allocating whatever is left after covering other required expenditures

B. the contributions of various departments to fund department-specific projects
Which term below refers to a criterion for judging the attractiveness of two or more alternatives when using a decision variable?

A. Decision theory

B. Decision rule

C. Ex post facto evaluation

D. Choice theory

E. Success probability

B. Decision rule
The quantifiable characteristic, attribute, or outcome on which a choice decision will be made is called a _____.

A. decision theory

B. decision rule

C. ex post facto evaluation

D. decision variable

E. success probability

D. decision variable
Which of the following statements is false regarding the evaluation of alternatives?

A. The selection of alternatives is determined by the decision variable chosen and the decision rule used

B. Each alternative must be explicitly stated

C. A decision variable is defined by an outcome that may be measured

D. A decision rule is determined by which outcomes may be compared

E. all of the above are true

E. all of the above are true
Ex Post Facto evaluation means that the research is evaluated _____.

A. prior to execution

B. based on the facts

C. after the research concludes

D. each day throughout the project

E. none of the above

C. after the research concludes
Which of the following terms fails to capture the meaning of a research design?

A. Map

B. Blueprint

C. Manual

D. Dictionary

E. Guidebook

D. Dictionary
Apple plans to survey every customer who has purchased an Apple computer in the last 5 years. Apple plans to use a _____.

A. convenience sample

B. snowball sample

C. systematic sample

D. census

E. random sample

D. census
McGraw-Hill is planning a study of educator preferences to determine the needs of college instructors. Because of the number of college instructors, McGraw-Hill will select a portion of the target population, known as a(n) _____, to participate in the study.

A. element

B. sample

C. sampling frame

D. census

E. extent

B. sample
A _____ is a trial collection of data to detect weaknesses in the design or instrument.

A. test market

B. census

C. sample

D. pilot test

E. sampling frame

D. pilot test
Pilot tests typically use a sample size of _____ participants.

A. less than 100

B. 100-500

C. 501-1000

D. more than 1000

E. it depends on budgetary constraints

A. less than 100
All of the following are benefits of pilot tests except _____.

A. provision of proxy data for probability sampling

B. identification of measurement errors

C. detection of weaknesses in research design

D. sensitization of respondents to the purpose of the study

E. all of the above are benefits

D. sensitization of respondents to the purpose of the study
Information collected from participants, by observation, or from secondary sources is called _____.

A. response

B. data

C. knowledge

D. fact

E. perceptual content

B. data
If a _____ sampling design is chosen, the process for choosing the sample must give every person within the target population a known nonzero chance of selection.

A. census

B. judgment

C. nonprobability

D. probability

E. primary

D. probability
Which type of sample provides a group of participants who are most representative of the target population?

A. Census

B. Judgment

C. Probability

D. Nonprobability

E. Primary

C. Probability
During the _____ stage, the analyst will look for patterns of responses to the survey questions.

A. data editing

B. data collection

C. data analysis

D. sampling

E. reporting

C. data analysis
Ensuring consistency among respondents, locating omissions, and reducing errors in recording are all benefits of _____.

A. data collection

B. data editing

C. sampling

D. coding

E. data analysis

B. data editing
Reducing data to a manageable size, developing summaries, and applying statistical techniques are all aspects of _____.

A. sampling

B. data collection

C. pilot testing

D. data analysis

E. data transformation

D. data analysis
Jason is entering the data analysis portion of his research project. Data analysis involves all of the following activities except _____.

A. reducing data to a manageable size

B. developing summaries

C. conducting focus groups

D. looking for patterns

E. applying statistical techniques

C. conducting focus groups
A synopsis of the problem, findings, and recommendations are provided in the ____ section of a research report.

A. executive summary

B. abstract

C. overview

D. implementation

E. technical appendix

A. executive summary
Which section of a research report contains all the materials necessary to replicate the project?

A. Executive summary

B. Abstract

C. Overview

D. Implementation

E. Technical appendix

E. Technical appendix
The executive summary of a research report includes _____.

A. all the materials necessary for replication

B. a synopsis of the problem, findings, and recommendations

C. a summary of findings from secondary sources and the research design

D. recommendations and implementation strategies

E. a list of expenses

B. a synopsis of the problem, findings, and recommendations
All of the following components are included in the overview section of a research report except _____.

A. problem background

B. findings from secondary sources

C. research design

D. procedures

E. recommendations

E. recommendations
A researcher who is method-bound is likely to _____.

A. be responsible for data analysis

B. utilize a probability sample

C. prefer one research approach over all others

D. mine a client’s database

E. all of the above

C. prefer one research approach over all others
Which of the following is not a common research process problem?

A. Politically motivated research

B. Database strip-mining

C. Unresearchable questions

D. Ill-defined management problems

E. Pilot testing

E. Pilot testing
Ill-defined problems are those that _____.

A. cannot be expressed completely or easily

B. cannot be answered

C. can be answered through data mining

D. cannot be addressed with secondary data

E. develop in method-bound research projects

A. cannot be expressed completely or easily
The question, “Should products be withdrawn if even one death is associated with its prescribed use, even if no fault for the tampered product accrues to the manufacturer?” is an example of a(n) _____.

A. ill-defined problem

B. strip data mining issue

C. favored-technique problem

D. unresearchable question

E. politically-motivated question

D. unresearchable question
Planning the research design involves decisions regarding _____.

A. data collection mode

B. type of study

C. measurement

D. sampling plans

E. all of the above

E. all of the above
The federal government conducts a census of the U.S. population rather than a sample because _____.

A. a census is less expensive than a sample

B. a sample may not fully represent the population

C. it is faster to collect data using a census

D. data collection is more manageable

E. all of the above

B. a sample may not fully represent the population
Which of the following questions is considered when discussing the management dilemma?

A. How can management eliminate negative symptoms?

B. What does the manager need to know to choose the best alternative from the available sources of action?

C. What is the recommended course of action?

D. What symptoms cause management concern?

E. What should be asked or observed to obtain the information the manager needs?

D. What symptoms cause management concern?
BankChoice is concerned about stagnating profits and asks, “How can profitability be improved?” This is an example of a(n) _____.

A. management question

B. research question

C. investigative question

D. measurement question

E. management dilemma

A. management question
Which type of management question asks “What do we want to achieve?”

A. Choice of purpose

B. Evaluation of solutions

C. Troubleshooting

D. Control

E. Concern

A. Choice of purpose
The fundamental weakness in the research process is _____.

A. incorrectly defining the research question

B. identifying a flawed sampling frame

C. misdefining the target population

D. failing to identify all relevant secondary information

E. skipping the exploratory phase

A. incorrectly defining the research question
Questions that the researcher must answer to satisfactorily arrive at a conclusion about the research question are called _____ questions.

A. management

B. research

C. investigative

D. measurement

E. hypothetical

C. investigative
A beer distribution company has recently purchased the rights to package and distribute its beer in a new type of can that is self-cooling. Because of the innovativeness of the product packaging, measurement questions will need to be formulated specifically for the project at hand. All of the following are disadvantages of customized questions except _____.

A. increased project costs

B. pretesting requirements

C. enhanced validity

D. increased time

E. all of the above are disadvantages

C. enhanced validity
Data have many characteristics. If you cannot see or feel the data being measured, you are describing their level of ______.

A. abstractness

B. elusiveness

C. verifiability

D. closeness to the phenomenon

E. replicability

A. abstractness
Data have many characteristics. If data are changing due to passage of time, you are describing their level of ______.

A. abstractness

B. elusiveness

C. verifiability

D. closeness to the phenomenon

E. replicability

B. elusiveness
Secondary data have a lower level of ____ than primary data.

A. abstractness

B. elusiveness

C. verifiability

D. closeness to the phenomenon

E. replicability

D. closeness to the phenomenon
Primary data have a higher level of ____ than secondary data.

A. abstractness

B. elusiveness

C. verifiability

D. closeness to the phenomenon

E. replicability

D. closeness to the phenomenon
Secondary data as a means of addressing a management problem are considered weaker than primary data because the data

A. were was potentially collected to address a different problem

B. are older, and therefore, irrelevant to current conditions

C. are less specific to the current problem

D. all of the above

E. none of the above

D. all of the above
The target population . . .

A. is identical to the sample population

B. is smaller in size than the sample population

C. must be defined before research begins

D. must be able to be captured in a sample frame

E. none of the above

C. must be defined before research begins
The exploratory research phase of a research project allows a researcher to accomplish several objectives. Name three of the objectives common to this stage.
There are several objectives including 1) expand understanding of the management dilemma, 2) gather background information to refine the research question, 3) identify information that should be gathered to formulate investigative questions, 4) identify sources for and actual questions that might be used as measurement questions, and 5 identify sources for and actual sample frames.
What are the three types of budgets in organizations where research is purchased and cost containment is crucial? List and describe each one. Is one more desirable than the others? Explain.
The three types of budgets are rule-of-thumb budgeting, departmental budgeting, and task budgeting. Rule-of-thumb budgeting involves designating a fixed percentage of some criterion variable. For instance, an organization might specify that the research budget for the year will be 1% of sales. This ensures some resources are available but does not link the need for research to the amount budgeted. Departmental budgeting allocates a portion of total expenditures in the unit to research activities. Each unit then has the authority to approve their own projects. Task budgeting selects specific research projects to support on an ad hoc basis. If no projects are selected, no budget is necessary. Task budgeting is the least proactive because it does not specify money in advance for research. However, it does permit a cost-benefit analysis for each project. Each method has its own advantages. Rule-of-thumb budgeting guarantees an amount for research. Departmental budgeting ensures authority to conduct research in each unit. Task budgeting provides for cost-benefit analysis.
Explain the difference between interim evaluation and ex post facto evaluation.
With interim evaluation, managers may decide to do the study in stages and evaluate its worth at each stage. With ex post facto evaluation, the effectiveness of the study is evaluated at the conclusion of the study or sometime thereafter.
Explain the value of conducting a pilot test and the primary considerations for a research planning to use a pilot test.
A pilot test is a trial collection of data to detect weaknesses in the design or instrument and provide proxy data for probability sampling. It should use subjects drawn from the target population but it does not need to use a probability sample. The sample size is small; usually between 25 and 100 participants. All of the procedures proposed in the design should be tested.