Business Management Chapter 9

Psychological Contract
The overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return.
Contributions
What the individual provides the organization
Inducements
W hat the organization provides the individual
Person-job fit
The extent to which the contributions made by the individual match the inducements offered by the organization.
Individual Differences
Personal attributes that vary from one person to another.
Personality
The relatively stables set of psychological and behavioral attitudes that distinguish one person from another.
“Big Five” Personality Traits
Popular personality framework based on five key traits:
o Agreeableness: A person’s ability to get along with others
o Conscientiousness: The number of goals on which a person focuses
o Negative Emotionality: Extent to which a person is poised, calm, resilient, and secure
o Extraversion: A person’s comfort level with relationships
o Openness: A person’s rigidity of beliefs and range of interests.
Locus of Control
The degree to which an individual believes that his or her behavior has a direct impact on the consequences of that behavior.
Self-Efficacy
An individual’s beliefs about his or her capabilities to perform a task
Authoritarianism
The extent to which an individual believes that power and status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social systems like organizations.
Machiavellianism
Behavior directed at gaining power and controlling the behavior of others.
Self-Esteem
The extent to which a person believes that he or she is a worthwhile and deserving individual.
Risk Propensity
The degree to which an individual is willing to take chances and make risky decisions.
Emotional Intelligence (EQ):
The extent to which people are self-aware, manage their emotions, motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and possess social skills.
Attitudes
Complexes of beliefs and feelings that people have about specific ideas, situations, or other people.
Cognitive Dissonance
Caused when an individual has conflicting attitudes.
Job Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction
An attitude that reflects the extent to which an individual is gratified by or fulfilled in his or her work.
Organizational Commitment
An attitude that reflects an individual’s identification with and attachment to the organization itself.
Positive Affectivity
A tendency to be relatively upbeat and optimistic, have an overall sense of well-being, see things in a positive light, and seem to be in a good mood
Negative Affectivity
A tendency to be generally downbeat and pessimistic, see things in a negative way, and seem to be in a bad mood
Perception
The set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information about the environment.
Selective Perception
The process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that contradicts our beliefs
Stereotyping
The process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute
Attribution
The process of observing behavior and attributing causes to it
Stress
An individual’s response to a strong stimulus, which is called a stressor.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
General cycle of the stress process
Type A
Individuals who are extremely competitive, are very devoted to work, and have a strong sense of time urgency
Type B
Individuals who are less competitive, are less devoted to work, and have a weakers sense of time urgency.
Burnout
A feeling of exhaustion that may develop when someone experiences too much stress for an extended period of time.
Creativity
The ability of an individual to generate new ideas or to conceive of new perspectives on existing ideas.
Workplace Behavior
A pattern of action by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences organizational effectiveness.
Performance Behaviors
A total set of work-related behaviors that the organization expects the individual to display.
Absenteeism
When an individual does not show up for work
Turnover
When people quit their jobs
Organizational Citizenship
The behavior of individuals that makes a positive overall contribution to the organization.
Dysfunctional behaviors
Those that detract from, rather than contribute to, organization performance.