Business Human Resources Terms

Human Resources
Hiring the right people, training them, placing them in the right place, motivate them, retain them
Appraisal
Refers to the formal process of evaluating the contributions and performance of an employee, usually conducted through observations an interview with the appraisees manager
Cascading
VERTICAL transfer of information in a hierarchy via meetings between staff and different levels of hierarchy
External Recruitment
involves recruiting staff from outside the organization to fill vacant posts
Flexible work patterns
the trend in having less core staff and more peripheral workers (such as part time staff and consultants) and subcontractors to improve the flexibility of the workspace
Human Resource Management
refers to the role of managers in developing the organizations people. such as the recruitment, selection, dismissal and training and development of employees
Workforce planning (human resource planning)
the management process of forecasting an organizations current and future staffing needs
Internal Recruitment
the practice of hiring people who already work for the firm to fill a position rather than recruiting someone new to the organization
Job Description
a document that outlines the nature of a job (ie the roles, tasks and responsibilities involved)
Person Specification
a business document that gives the profile of the ideal candidate for the job
Job Analysis
Shamrock Organization
refers to Charles Handy’s idea. operates with a core group of full-time long-term workers supported by others who work on contracts and part time
Tele-working
a method of workforce planning whereby employees work in a location away from the workplace such as a home or call center
Short-listing
refers to the process of sifting through applications to identify suitable candidates for the job
Recruitment
refers to the process of hiring suitable workers. this will entail a thorough job analysis to ensure that the best candidate is hired
Accountability
describes the extent to which a person is held responsible for the success or failure of a task
Bureaucracy
the official administrative and formal rules of an organization that govern business activity
Centralization
occur when the majority of decision making authority and responsibility is done by a small number of people (usually senior managers)
Chain of command
refers to the formal line of authority, shown in an organization chart, through which orders are passed down
decentralization
occur when some decision making authority and responsibility is passed on to others in the organization
De-layering
the process of removing levels in the hierarchy to flatten the organizational structure
delegation
empowerment of authority of a person lower down in the organizational structure
flat organizational structure
means that there are only a few layers in the formal hierarchy and hence managers have a wide span of control
flexible structure
not based on the traditional hierarchical organization of human resources but enable a business to adapt its labor resources when there is a need to respond to rapid change
Paternalistic
a system under which an authority undertakes to supply needs or regulate conduct of those under its control in matters affecting them as individuals as well as in their relations to authority and to each other.
Situational Leadership
refers to when the leader or manager of an organization must adjust his style to fit the development level of the followers he is trying to influence
Laissez-faire leaders
allow followers to have complete freedom to make decisions concerning the completion of their work. It allows followers a high degree of autonomy and self-rule, while at the same time offering guidance and support when requested.
Blanchard & Hershey
A situational leadership model which suggests that there is no single optimal leadership style, and successful leaders adjust their styles based on “follower maturity.” Follower maturity is determined by the ability and confidence of the group they are attempting to lead.
Charles Handy
an Irish author/philosopher specialising in organisational behaviour and management. Among the ideas he has advanced are the “portfolio worker” and the “Shamrock Organization” (in which professional core workers, freelance workers and part-time/temporary routine workers each form one leaf of the “Shamrock”).
Peter Drucker
Austrian-born American management consultant, educator, and author, whose writings contributed to the philosophical and practical foundations of the modern business
delegation
empowerment of authority of a person lower down in the organizational structure
Empowerment
to give power or authority to
Fringe Benifits
any of various benefits, as free life or health insurance, paid holidays, a pension, etc., received by an employee in addition to regular pay.
Herzberg’s Two-factor theory
states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction. It was developed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg, who theorized that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction act independently of each other.[1]
Hygiene factors
the factors that characterize the context or environment of a person’s work. They can be a cause of job dissatisfaction unless appropriately applied by an organization
Motivators
to provide with a motive or motives
Mayo’s Hawthorne effect
Observation that employee motivation is affected as much or more by recognition and show of concern, as it is by improvements in their work conditions
Job enlargement
increasing the scope of a job through extending the range of its job duties and responsibilities generally within the same level and periphery.
Job enrichment
can be described as a medium through which management can motivate self-driven employees by assigning them additional responsibility normally reserved for higher level employees. By doing this, the employees feel like their work has meaning and is important to the company.
Job rotation
a management technique that assigns trainees to various structures and departments over a period of a few years.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
organizational chart
a diagrammatic representation of a firms formal structure
offshoring
a form of outsourcing that involves relocation business functions and processes to another country
outsourcing
the act of finding external people or businesses to carry out non core functions of a business
span of control
refers to the number of subordinates that are overseen by a manager
matrix groups
tall organization structures
means that there are many layers in the hierarchy
responsibility
refers to who is in charge of whom such as the staff in the finance department
formal v informal groups
formal is the official channels of communication that are established by the organization and informal are the channels established by the people within the organization
communication channels
the methods or routes through which information is passed down
non verbal communication
any form of communication other than oral communication
autocratic leader
refers to managers and leaders who adopt an authoritatrian style by making all decisions rather than delegating any responsibility to any employees
contingency theory
a leadership model that suggests the best leadership style depends on a range of interconnected factors. no single style suits all firms and all employees all of the time
democratic leader
refers to a decision maker who takes into account the views of others.
Motivation
the reason or reasons one has for acting or behaving in a particular way.
Performance-related Pay (PRP)
A financial reward system for employees where some or all of their monetary compensation is related to how their performance is assessed relative to stated criteria. Performance related pay can be used in a business context for how an individual, a team or the entire company performs during a given time frame.
Piece rate
compensation based on a worker’s quantitative output or production, usually an agreed sum per article of work turned out.
Productivity
the state or quality of producing something, especially crops.
Remuneration
money paid for work or services
Scientific management – Taylor
An early 20th century school of management thought concerned primarily with the physical efficiency of an individual
Time rate
a rate for work which is calculated as money per hour or per week, and not money for work completed
Corporate culture (organizational culture)
the behavior of humans within an organization and the meaning that people attach to those behaviors.
Culture clash
a conflict arising from the interaction of people with different cultural values
Arbitration
form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), is a technique for the resolution of disputes outside the courts.
Collective bargaining
negotiation of wages and other conditions of employment by an organized body of employees.
Mediation
intervention in a dispute in order to resolve it; arbitration.
Deadlock
a situation, typically one involving opposing parties, in which no progress can be made
Strikes
a refusal to work organized by a body of employees as a form of protest, typically in an attempt to gain a concession or concessions from their employer.
Trade unions
An organization whose membership consists of workers and union leaders, united to protect and promote their common interests.
Walk out
the act of leaving or being absent from a meeting, especially as an expression of protest.
Work-to- rule
Work-to-rule is an industrial action in which employees do no more than the minimum required by the rules of their contract, and precisely follow safety or other regulations in order to cause a slowdown, rather than to serve their purposes.
Continuity planning
The creation of a strategy through the recognition of threats and risks facing a company, with an eye to ensure that personnel and assets are protected and able to function in the event of a disaster.
Contingency plans
a plan designed to take a possible future event or circumstance into account
Quantifiable risks (insurable)
a risk that meets the ideal criteria for efficient insurance. The concept of insurable risk underlies nearly all insurance decisions.
Unquantifiable risks (uninsurable)
A hazard or condition that has either a high likelihood of loss, or in which the insurance would be considered against the law.