a. an email to a coworker that confirms the time for an upcoming meeting.
b. A letter to a customer denying his or her request for credit.
c. an all-staff memo that outlines the new procedures for processing returned merchandise.
d. An e-mail reply to a customer acknowledging that his or her order has shipped.
Routine messages are positive, include simple requests for information or action, replies to customers, explanations to coworkers, instructions, direct claims, and complaints.
-need for permanent record.
-need for a persuasive and well-organized presentation.
a. Please answer the following questions about your Web services.
b. My name is Jill Aubrey, and I am the office manager for Cape Consulting Inc.
c. I recently read an article about your firm in the local newspaper.
d. Cape Consulting Inc. is the premier communication-consutling firm in the Cape and islands area.
specifies the reason that you are writing and is an appropriate, direct opening for your routine request.
The most emphatic positions are the openings and closings.
The best way to present a series of questions is in a numbered or bulleted list in the body of the message. Courtney should also be certain that the list is presented in parallel structure.
Use the final paragraph to ask for specific action to set an end date if appropriate, and to express appreciation. Readers look for action information in your closing paragraph.
a. Please send a contract for heating and ventilation work by April 1 to allow installation to begin by April 15.
b. We hope you can get our work completed in a timely manner.
c. Thank you in advance for sending a copy of the contract for installation of a new HVAC system by April 1.
d. I would appreciate receiving a copy of the contract for your proposed installation at your earliest possible convenience.
Asks for specific information and provides a clear end date with a reason for the end date.
A subject line is optional. If it is used, it may refer to previous correspondence or may summarize the main idea. It does not identify the sender or the company. In addition, it should not be written as a complete sentence or end with a period.
Because the claim is being granted, the good news should be revealed immediately.
a. Do not suggest your business typically pleases its customers; do apologize for failure.
b. Do not be vague about improvements; do guarantee the situation will not recur.
c. Don’t use negative words (regret, error, failure); do use positive words (hope, achieve, strive)
d. Do not blame customers; do blame individuals or departments inside your organization.
Using sensitive language includes these don’ts: do not use negative words, do not make promises or guarantees, and do not blame customers or individuals and departments inside your organization. Customers like to receive an apology, but attorneys may advise against an apology.
First, analyze the bad news so that you can anticipate its effect on the receiver. This analysis will help choose techniques and words to reduce the pain of the bad news.
Which of the following bad-news messages should be organized using the direct strategy?
a. an announcement of changes in business services.
b. a layoff notice for a long-time employee
c. A denial of benefits on an insurance claim to an angry customer.
d. A notice of an unexpected plant closure to the city council and mayor.
Use the direct strategy to announce the change of business services because your audience may otherwise ignore this information. All other topics should use the indirect strategy because they are likely to provoke hostile responses or cause personal upset.
The indirect strategy ensures that you keep the reader’s attention as you explain the reasons for the bad news. The explanation is an important part of softening the blow of the bad news.
a. the message arrives unexpectedly.
b. firmness is necessary.
c. the receiver may overlook the bad news.
d the bad news is not damaging.
Use the indirect strategy when the bad news will arrive unexpectedly. All other answer choices typically require the direct strategy.
a. bad news, explanation, reasons, and closing.
b. bad news, reasons, buffer, closing
c. buffer, reasons, bad news, and closing.
d. buffer, explanation, reasons, and closing
When a hostile reaction is anticipated, beginning with a buffer may keep the audience receptive enough to listen to Corbin’s presentation of the reasons before he must present the bad news of the reduction in over time pay. Using the indirect strategy for a bad news message is recommended when the news is upsetting.
a. a positive, forward-looking closing
b. a neutral buffer
c. an explanation of the reasons for the bad news
d. the bad news itself
a. Our current company policy does not allow telecommunicating.
b. Unfortunately, we regret that we are unable to afford the expenses associated with telecommunicating.
c. Your daily presence in the office is important to ensure regular customer contact.
d. Your work standards cannot be relied on unless we are able to observe you at your workstation.
Would be the most effective because it is a positive statement showing how the company and customer benefit.
a. We closed our restaurant on Sundays beginning last month.
b. Because few customers dine with us on Sundays, we decided to close our restaurant on this weekday.
c. Beginning last month, our restaurant was closed on Sundays.
d. Management decided that it must close our restaurant on Sundays.
a. Your request for credit has been denied.
b. Because you have not been employed for the past 15 months and have credit debts of over $4,000, we will not be able to grant you credit at this time.
c. Your failure to meet our standards will not allow us to issue you a credit account.
d. Although your credit rating does not meet our minimum standards, we would be happy to reconsider your application if you add a cosigner.
When bad news involves one person or a small group, you should generally deliver the news in person and promptly.
Although many negative messages will be delivered with the indirect strategy, some messages will best be delivered with the direct strategy. Smart business writers must carefully consider the audience, purpose, and context to determine which strategy is more appropriate.
Readers resent blanket policy statements prohibiting something.
a. The number of persuasive messages Americans receive per day has declined.
b. Individuals need not be concerned about persuasive practices and their influence on human behavior.
c. Persuasive messages sent via social media have not impacted individuals or American culture.
d. Today’s persuasion is different from persuasion used in previous times.
a. Only large corporations use persuasion when selling their products.
b. Today’s persuasion is obvious and blatant.
c. Persuasive messages are sent faster and reach greater audiences today.
d. Today’s successful marketers have learned to standardize their persuasive efforts to reach their audiences.
The volume and reach of persuasive messages have exploded today because individuals, groups, and businesses of all sizes use persuasion. In addition, theses messages, which are more subtle, misleading, complex, and impersonal, and are sent at increasing speeds.
unlike direct claim messages, persuasive requests are generally more effective when they are organized using the indirect strategy.
a. informing employees of an upcoming all-staff meeting.
b. Announcing the hiring of a new sales director.
c. Asking an employer for agreed-upon benefits such as vacation time.
d. requesting favors and action from coworkers.
The indirect strategy is needed when resistance is expected such as when requesting favors and action from coworkers. The other answer choices would be presented using the direct strategy.
To overcome possible resistance , you must first lay a logical foundation before delivering the request, which means that your reasons and explanations for the persuasive request should precede the main idea.
a) Provide her telephone number.
b) Capture the reader’s attention and interest.
c) Cite facts, statistics, expert opinions, examples, and specific details to support her request.
d) Identify herself and her company.
To be persuasive, the opening must capture the reader’s attention and interest by asking a stimulating question, describing a problem, making an unexpected statement, suggesting reader benefits, or offering praise or compliments.
a) If you have June 14 open, would you be interested in speaking at our Flag Day ceremony?
b) Please consider this letter an invitation to address our organization on June 14.
c) Your patriotism and leadership in the House of Representatives have improved the quality of life across our state.
d) The Patriotic Council promotes respect for the flag and our country, just as you do, which is why we are asking you to be our guest speaker for our Flag Day ceremony on June 14.
is the best opening for a persuasive request because it is indirect, captures the reader’s attention and interest, and focuses on an indirect reader benefit.
You reduce resistance by anticipating objections and offering counterarguments. Other effective techniques include establishing your credibility, demonstrating your competence, and showing the value of your proposal.
The closing of a persuasive request should motivate action. To motivate action, ask for a particular action that is easy to complete. Don’t forget to show courtesy, respect, and gratitude toward your reader as well.
a) Please e-mail me at your earliest convenience with your decision.
b) Contacting me by December 1 about your support of this new benefits plan will allow me to present this proposal at the next strategic planning session.
c) If you have any further questions about this new benefits plan, please do not hesitate to contact me.
d) We really need to implement this new benefits plan soon.
The closing of a persuasive request message should be courteous, ask for a specific action, and make the action easy to take.
Because sales letters are usually written by specialists, you may never write one on the job. However, learning the techniques of sales writing helps you become more successful in any communication that requires persuasion and promotion. Learning to compose effective sales messages will also help you become a more savvy consumer.
Whether you are promoting a product, a service, an idea, or yourself, your primary goal in writing a sales or marketing message is getting your reader to spend some time reading the message.
a) For a limited time you will receive our employee discount on any new General Motors vehicle
b) Surround yourself in the uncompromising safety and luxury of a Lincoln because you’ve earned it.
c) Purchase a Jeep today, and you will receive a $1,500 college savings bond for tomorrow.
d) Save now and save later. With its low sticker price and great gas mileage, this Focus hybrid is a best buy.
Emotional appeals focus on status, ego, and sensual feelings. Saying that a car will surround the customer in well-earned safety and luxury creates a sales message that appeals to the buyer’s ego.
b) money-back guarantees.
c) application forms.
d) free samples or trials.
Overcome resistance and elicit desire by offering free samples or trials, testimonials, guarantees or warranties, names of satisfied customers, and performance polls.
Capture the reader’s attention.
“Opt-in” is the term for signing up to receive a newsletter.
Effective online sales messages are sent to those who have given permission. Other good techniques include using a catchy subject line, using a minimum of text, keeping main information “above the fold,” making the message short and conversational, and conveying urgency.
Persuasion is needed when you are making more than routine demands and facing skeptical audiences.
It’s polite and a good business tactic to include a statement that tells receivers how to be removed from the sender’s mailing database.
Matt states that you should have an idea of the tone prior to entering a meeting. A big part of this is emotional intelligence.
An informational report presents data without analysis or recommendations.
An informational report presents data without analysis or recommendations.
a) A recommendation from the Information Technology Department that your company install a wireless network
b) A feasibility study addressing possible tuition reimbursement for employees
c) A comparison of five handheld communication devices that your company might purchase
d) A summary of information presented at a recent conference for technical writers
An informational report presents data without analysis or recommendations. A report summarizing information presented at a conference for technical writers is most likely to be written as an informational report. All other examples would require analysis or recommendations.
Analytical reports provide data, analyses, conclusions, and, if requested, recommendations. Analytical reports may also intend to persuade readers to act or to change their beliefs.
a) A report summarizing the details of a recent seminar you attended
b) A report recommending an antiterrorism security system for mass transit
c) A report outlining the new company procedure for reporting workplace injuries
d) A report showing state budget allocations for education
An analytical report provides data, analyses, conclusions, and recommendations. A report recommending an antiterrorism security system for mass transit is an analytical report. All other examples represent informational reports.
a) need to be educated.
b) must be persuaded.
c) are informed and aware of a situation.
d) may be disappointed or hostile.
The direct strategy is helpful when readers are informed, supportive, or eager to have the results first. Other answer choices reflect reasons to use the indirect strategy.
a) are supportive of the topic.
b) must be persuaded.
c) are familiar with the topic.
d) want to know the results immediately.
The indirect strategy is helpful when readers must be persuaded or educated. The indirect strategy is also useful when readers may be disappointed in or hostile toward the findings. Other answer choices reflect reasons to use the direct strategy.
When the conclusions and recommendations, if requested, appear at the end of the report, the organizational strategy is indirect. Such reports usually begin with an introduction or description of the problem, followed by facts and explanations. They end with conclusions and recommendations.
a) Superior writing skills are required by many employers.
b) Employee use of e-mail was monitored by management.
c) Research indicates a correlation between strong writing skills and promotions.
d) The proposals were carefully reviewed by the screening committee.
Using active-voice verbs is one way you can demonstrate an informal writing style.
Talking headings describe content and provide more information to the reader than functional headings
a) IT Outsourcing
c) Cost Savings
d) Projected Cost Savings for IT Outsourcing
Talking headings describe content and provide more information to the reader than functional headings.
To make her headings effective, Katherine should use appropriate heading levels, use parallel construction in all levels, capitalize and underline headings carefully, keep headings short but clear, punctuate headings appropriately, and include at least one heading per report page.
One of the most important steps in writing a report is that of gathering information (research) because a good report is based on solid, accurate, and verifiable facts.
Primary data result from firsthand experience and observation. Secondary data come from reading what others have experienced or observed and recorded.
A record of the proceedings of a meeting is called the minutes. Like summaries, minutes of meetings organize and condense information for quick reading and reference.
Although both informational and analytical reports seek to collect and present data clearly, informational reports emphasize facts. Analytical reports, on the other hand, emphasize reasoning and conclusions.
Yardstick reports examine problems with two or more solutions. To determine the best solution, the writer establishes criteria by which to compare the alternatives. The criteria then act as a yardstick against which all the alternatives are measured.
Proposals, which can be solicited or unsolicited, are persuasive, not informative, documents used to solve problems, provide services, or sell products. They are also written for internal and external audiences.
Proposals must get the reader’s attention, emphasize how your methods and products will benefit the reader, showcase your expertise and build credibility, and present ideas clearly and logically. Formal reports, not proposals, analyze findings, draw conclusions, and make recommendations intended to solve a problem.
a) advertise openings for two sales positions.
b) attract new clients.
c) renovate offices.
d) interview job candidates.
The renovation of offices would most likely result in the writing of a request for proposal (RFP). An RFP specifies the service, equipment, or problem-solving needs of an organization or business and solicits competitive bids.
The closing section is often the authorization request, which includes a deadline for acceptance.
When writing a formal report, you should begin by constructing a purpose statement that defines the focus of the report and provides a standard that keeps the project on target.
Information sequenced along a time frame is arranged chronologically (dates in time). This plan is effective for presenting historical data or for describing a procedure.
This pattern works well for “before and “after” scenarios or for problems with clear alternatives.
Primary data result from firsthand experience and observation; secondary data come from reading what others have experienced and observed.
b) Electronic databases
Providing answers to business problems often means generating primary data through surveys, interviews, observation, or experimentation. All other answer choices are means to generate secondary data.
Plagiarism is the act of using others’ ideas without documenting properly or by paraphrasing poorly. It happens in both academic and business settings. However, you can avoid charges of plagiarism by knowing what to document and by developing good research habits.
Paraphrasing is restating an original passage in your own words and in your own style through different grammatical structure and wording.
You should beware of overusing quotations because readers may think that you have few ideas of your own. In addition, always summarize a direct quote before you present it and keep its exact wording.
When selecting a graphic for a report, you must consider your objective, and then select a graphic that will convey this information most effectively.
Line charts are useful for demonstrating changes in quantitative data over time.
A letter or memo of transmittal announces the topic of the report and tells how it was authorized; briefly describes the project; highlights the report’s findings, conclusions, and recommendations; and closes with appreciation for the assignment or instruction for follow-up actions.
When developing a bibliographic list of sources, arrange all published and unpublished sources in alphabetical order, double spaced, and displayed using a hanging indent. In addition, title the page “Works Cited” when using the MLA format or “References” when using the APA format.
Proposals are persuasive offers to solve problems, provide services, or sell products.
An awareness of courtesy and etiquette can give you a competitive edge in the job market. Etiquette, civility, and goodwill efforts may seem out of place in today’s fast-paced, hyperconnected offices; however, when two candidates have equal qualifications, the one who appears to be more polished and professional is more likely to be hired and promoted.
a. Face-to-face communication is the least rich communication channel.
b. Face-to-face communication increases the likelihood of misunderstandings.
c. Face-to-face conversations reduce cooperation and limit problem solving during conflict.
d. Face-to-face interaction is the most effective of all communication channels.
Face-to-face conversation allows you to be persuasive and expressive because you can use your voice and body; and it reduces the likelihood of misunderstandings, especially in conflict situations when it promotes efficient problem solving and cooperation. As a result, face-to-face interaction is the most effective and richest communication channel.
a. The voice sends only verbal messages to receivers.
b. Individuals can learn to change their voice to make it more effective and powerful.
c. No correlation exists between the voice and perceived authority and trust.
d. All answer choices are accurate statements about the human voice.
The voice carries strong nonverbal messages. In fact, studies suggest a strong correlation between one’s voice and perceived authority and trust. As a result, you can learn how to use your voice effectively by controlling your pronunciation, voice quality, pitch, volume, rate, and emphasis.
Speaking in a relaxed, controlled, well-pitched voice at about 125 words a minute makes you sound pleasing and professional. Other tips include listening to educated individuals pronounce words, adjusting your volume and rate accordingly, and occasionally emphasizing words.
“Uptalk,” in which sentences sound like questions due to a rising end inflection, makes speakers seem weak and tentative.
You should ask questions when you need clarification. However, do not blame others, interrupt your boss, or agree with all statements.
Constructive criticism is more effective when it avoids vague assertions and broad generalities.
a. You seem to think that you can submit any kind of work and that it doesn’t matter.
b. Your work is often shoddy.
c. Producing inferior work often causes this company to lose time and money.
d. You need to produce work that meets this company’s standards.
The best example of constructive criticism is “Producing inferior work often causes this company to lose time and money.” All other answer choices are vague, use you-focused language, or discuss the person rather than the behavior.
a. Name the person you are calling
b. Identify yourself and your affiliation
c. Stating the time of the call
d. Give a brief explanation of your reason for calling
When placing a phone call, remember these tips: plan a mini-agenda prior to making the call, use a three-point introduction, be brisk if you are rushed, be cheerful and accurate, be professional and courteous, end the call when you have received or conveyed the information, avoid telephone tag, and leave complete voice mail messages.
a. This is Beth. May I help you?
b. Precision Integrations. What’s on your mind?
c. Hello. What can I do for you?
d. Thanks for calling Precision Integrations. This is Beth Dittmer. How may I help you today?
In answering your business telephone, provide your name, title or affiliation, and a greeting.
a. Identify your colleague’s whereabouts if you are answering his or her phone.
b. Guarantee the caller that your colleague will return the call within a few hours.
c. Verify telephone numbers and spelling of names when taking messages.
d. Find your coworker immediately and report that he or she has an incoming call.
You should verify all phone numbers and the spelling of names when taking messages. However, never mention the whereabouts of your colleagues or guarantee a return call.
a. Hi! I’m sorry I missed your call. Please leave a brief message after the tone.
b. This is Shawn. I’m not available right now. But if you leave a message, I promise to call you back. Be sure to include your name, phone number, and the best time to return your call.
c. Your call is important to me. Please leave your name and number so that I can return your call promptly.
d. Hi! You have reached the voice mail of Shawn Brog of Juarez Accounting. I am currently away from my phone but will return by 2 p.m. Please call back then. Thank you for calling.
Shawn’s voice mail greeting should identify him and his organization, explain that he is unavailable, and offer an opportunity to call back or for him to return the call.
Smiling adds warmth to the message
a. Teams tend to respond more slowly to competition or problem solving.
b. Because conflict often results, teams tend to have decreased productivity.
c. Team members who are involved in the decision-making process show less resistance to change.
d. Individuals tend to make better decisions than teams.
Team members who have input into decisions are less hostile, aggressive, and resistant to change. In addition, teams make better decisions, can respond more quickly, show increased productivity, exhibit greater buy-in, demonstrate improved employee morale, and experience reduced risk.
a. agree on a purpose and procedures.
b. are homogeneous.
c. avoid conflict.
d. work independently.
The most successful teams have a small size and diverse makeup, agree on the team’s purpose and procedures, have the ability to confront conflict, use good communication techniques, collaborate rather than compete, share leadership, and accept their ethical responsibilities.
The number of meeting participants depends on the purpose of the meeting. Intensive problem solving should usually involve five or fewer people.
a. Wait until all participants arrive.
b. Give a quick recap to anyone who arrives late.
c. Establish ground rules.
d. Begin by voting on items sent out in messages prior to the meeting.
Always start meetings on time, but don’t give a recap to any latecomer. Open the meeting by identifying the meeting objective(s), providing any background information, and setting any necessary ground rules.
An effective leader ends the meeting with a summary of accomplishments and a review of action items; he or she also follows up by distributing meeting minutes and reminding participants of their assigned tasks.
When leading or participating in a virtual meeting, follow these tips: ensure that the technology is functional for all participants before the start of the meeting, set the meeting time using Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), interact professionally, establish ground rules, understand and anticipate limitations of virtual technology, take turns speaking, and allow dispersed members to build camaraderie and trust through casual conversation before and after the meeting.
The term “professionalism” and its synonyms, such as “business etiquette” or “protocol,” “soft skills,” “social intelligence,” “polish,” and “civility” all have one element in common. They describe desirable workplace behavior. Businesses have an interest in employees who get along and deliver positive results that enhance profits and boost the company’s image.
Effective speaking skills, whether face-to-face or virtual, are essential for success at every career stage. In addition, speaking skills are the most desirable “soft skill” sought in job candidates by employers. In fact, speaking skills rank higher than a strong work ethic, teamwork, analytical skills, and initiative.
Although creating visual aids, gathering research, and looking professional are important, determining the purpose is the most important part of the preparation for an oral presentation.
After determining your purpose, the second key element in preparation is analyzing your audience to understand key characteristics of the target receivers of your message. This allows you to best adapt your message to your audience to maximize message effectiveness.
a. educational level of the audience members.
b. size of the audience.
c. approximate age of the audience members.
d. All answer choices are important factors to consider when analyzing an audience.
When speakers analyze an audience, they should determine the type of audience, along with the age, gender, educational level, experience, and size of the audience.
An audience may be characterized by its anticipated response. The four general response categories for audiences are hostile, friendly, neutral, and uninterested. Based on the category of audience, you should adapt both your content and delivery style to maximize your results.
Because she faces a hostile audience, Irina should plan to present objective data and expert opinion in a calm and controlled delivery.
After determining your purpose and analyzing the audience, you must collect and organize information. You cannot organize ideas until all the information is collected, and you cannot practice delivery until you organize the content. Finally, you identified the topic when developing your purpose statement.
Increase audience comprehension and retention with good organization and intentional repetition using this method: “Tell them what you will tell them. Tell them. Tell them what you told them.” Then choose an organizational scheme suited to your purpose and audience, and implement transitional expressions and signposts to help your audience recognize your organization.
Establish credibility by describing your knowledge, position, and experience. In business your personal information will not likely impact your audience.
The body of a short presentation should include a limited number of main points (two to four).
Paul is identifying a problem (budget woes) and offering a solution (compressed workweek to decrease costs).
1. Summarize the main themes
2.Review the attention getter
3.Give the audience a memorable take-away
4. Conclude with a statement that allows for a graceful exit
2. Give the audience a memorable take-away
3. Conclude with a statement that allows for a graceful exit
Your conclusion has three primary tasks: review the main themes of the presentation, leave the audience with a memorable take-away, and include a statement that allows you to exit the podium gracefully.
Audiences appreciate handouts. Timing the distribution of any handout, though, is tricky. If given out during a presentation, your handouts tend to distract the audience. Therefore, discuss handouts during the presentation, but wait to distribute them after you finish.
Extemporaneous: “previously planned but delivered with the help of few or no notes: extemporaneous lectures” is the preferred method of delivery for presentations so they come off as a natural conversation, improving the credibility of the deliverer.
a. Announce the question-and-answer period in the conclusion of your presentation.
b. If you don’t know the answer to a question, you should offer your best guess or make up an answer.
c. Begin each answer with a repetition of the question.
d. Direct your answers just to the person who asked the question.
The best advice for taking audience questions is to begin each answer with a repetition of the question because audience members often do not hear the question.
Feeling some apprehension when speaking in public is normal for most people.
3.team work skills
Second paragraph contains educational and other necessary information. This is the paragraph where the writer should use tact in explaining what Ms. Little should have known. This paragraph should also include reference to any promotional materials.
Third paragraph should provide a positive, friendly, personal ending and could contain appreciation (if appropriate). This paragraph should include a statement of clear action (or motivation for action).
Inside address (2 HRTs)
Salutation (2 HRTs)
Subject (2 HRTs)
Paragraph 1 (2 HRTs)
Paragraph 2 (2 HRTs)
Paragraph 3 (2 HRTs)
Complimentary Close (4 HRTs)
Your name (2 HRTs)
Enclosure (2 HRTs)
Many business transactions require a permanent record. For example, when a company enters into an agreement with another company, business letters introduce the agreement and record decisions and points of understanding. Routine letters are used to deliver contracts, explain terms, exchange ideas, negotiate agreements, answer vendor questions, and maintain customer relations.
-Body: Explain the request logically and courteously. Ask other questions if necessary.
-Closing: Request a specific action with an end date, if appropriate, and express appreciation.
*Front Load your message
-The first sentence of a direct request is usually a question or a polite command.
1. Big Idea First.
2. Providing Details. (use parallel structure; use the same balanced construction.)
3. Closing With Appreciation and a Call for Action.
Rules of engagement:
1. Be positive
2. Be Transparent
3. Be honest
4. Be timely (less than 24 hours)
5. Be helpful.
-Subject line: Summarize the content of the message.
-Opening: Expand the subject line by stating the main idea concisely in a full sentence.
-Body: Present the instructions in steps in the order in which they are to be carried out. Arrange the items vertically with numbers. Begin each step with an action verb using the imperative (command) mood.
-Closing: Request a specific action, summarize the message, or present a closing thought. If appropriate, include a deadline and a reason.
The most effective way to list directions is to use command language, which is called the imperative mood (requires action).
Provide Clear explanations
Watch your tone
-Direct strategy if the bad news:
is not damaging
may be overlooked
is preferred by recipient
-Indirect strategy if bad news:
is personally upsetting
may provoke hostile reaction
could threaten customer relationship
Whether to use the direct or indirect strategy depends largely on the situation, the reaction you expect from the audience, and your goals. One of the first steps before delivering the bad news is to analyze how your receiver will react to the news.
Best news, Compliment, Appreciation, Agreement, Facts, Understanding, Apology.
Cautious explanation, reader or other benefits, company policy explanation, positive words, evidence that matter was considered fairly and seriously.
Embedded placement, passive voice, implied refusal, compromise, alternative
Forward look, information about alternative, good wishes, freebies, resale, sales promotion
Because many executives today rely on buy-in instead of exercising raw power,Footnote messages flowing downward require attention to tone. Warm words and a conversational tone convey a caring attitude. Persuasive requests coming from a trusted superior are more likely to be accepted than requests from a dictatorial executive who relies on threats and punishments to secure compliance.
b) sales letter: its strategy, organization, and evidence. Your primary goal in writing a sales message is to get someone to devote a few moments of attention to it. In each case the most effective messages follow the AIDA strategy, (a) gain attention, (b) build interest, (c) elicit desire and reduce resistance, and (d) motivate action. Emotional and Rational appeals, or both (dual appeal). Reducing resistance and building desire.
c) A direct-mail sales letter is the number two preferred marketing medium right behind e-mailFootnote because it can be personalized, directed to target audiences, and filled with a more complete message than other advertising media can.
d) you want to show how your persuasive message solves a problem, achieves a personal or work objective, or just makes life easier for your audience.
e) The goal of a persuasive message is to convert the receiver to your ideas and motivate action. The first rule of e-marketing is to communicate only with those who have given permission. Online sales messages are shorter than direct-mail messages, feature colorful graphics, and occasionally even come with sound or video clips.
f) Social media (twitter) you may see attention getters and calls for action, both of which must be catchy and intriguing. Regardless, many of the principles of persuasion discussed in this chapter apply even to micromessages.
Analytical Reports: provide data or findings analyses, and conclusions are analytical. Intend to persuade readers to act or change their beliefs. Indirect strategy or direct strategy; if readers need to be educated, persuaded, or may be disappointed or hostile.
Talking Headings: provide more information and spark interest. Must make sure that they contribute to the overall organization and flow of ideas. ex. Lack of space and cost compound parking program, survey shows support for parking fees. Left aligned
Combination: ex. Introduction: Lack of Parking Reaches Crisis proportions.
2.If summarizing a report, highlight the research methods, findings, conclusions, and recommendations.
3.Omit illustrations, examples, and references.
4.Organize for readability by including headings and bulleted or enumerated lists.
5. If requested to do so, include your reaction or overall evaluation of the document.
-Yardstick Report: examine problems with two or more solutions. To determine the best solution, the writer establishes criteria by which to compare the alternatives. The criteria then act as a yardstick against which all the alternatives are measured. Is effective for companies that must establish specifications for equipment purchases and then compare each manufacturer’s product with the established specs. The yardstick approach is also effective when exact specifications cannot be established. The real advantage to yardstick reports is that alternatives can be measured consistently using the same criteria
states the reasons for the proposal and highlights the writer’s qualifications. To grab attention and be more persuasive, the introduction should strive to provide a “hook.”
-Background, problem, and purpose:
identifies the problem and discusses the goals or purposes of the project. In an unsolicited proposal, your goal is to convince the reader that a problem exists. Therefore, you must present the problem in detail, discussing such factors as revenue losses, failure to comply with government regulations, or decreased customer satisfaction. In a solicited proposal, your aim is to persuade the reader that you understand the reader’s issues and that you have a realistic solution.
-Proposal, Plan, and Schedule:
The proposal section often includes an implementation plan. If research is involved, state what methods you will use to gather the data. Remember to be persuasive by showing how your methods and products will benefit the reader.The proposal might even promise specific deliverables—tangible things your project will produce for the customer. A proposal deliverable might be a new website design or an online marketing plan. To add credibility, also specify how the project will be managed and audited.
describes the staff qualifications for implementation of the proposal as well as the credentials and expertise of the project leaders. In other words, this section may include the size and qualifications of the support staff. This section is a good place to endorse and promote your staff. The client sees that qualified people will be on board to implement the project.
the budget, a list of proposed project costs. Must be careful it represents a contract; you cannot raise the project costs later—even if your costs increase.
-Conclusion and Authorization:
The closing section should remind the reader of the proposal’s key benefits and make it easy for the reader to respond. It might also include a project completion date as well as a deadline date beyond which the proposal offer will no longer be in effect.
– Secondary data result from reading what others have published, experienced, or observed.
-Secondary data sources are easier and cheaper to gather than primary data sources, which might involve interviewing large groups or sending out questionnaires.
-Secondary research sources:
.print resources (books, periodicals, indexes,)
.The web (web search tools-google, yahoo- web search operators, web encyclopedias, web resources and their credibilty).
-Primary research sources:
.observation and experimentation
Another person’s ideas, opinions, examples, or theory. Any facts, statistics, graphs, and drawings that are not common knowledge. Quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words. Paraphrases of another person’s spoken or written words. Visuals, images, and any kind of electronic media.
Information that is common knowledge requires no documentation.
-How to Paraphrase:
means restating an original passage in your own words and in your own style.
1.Read the original material intently to comprehend its full meaning.
2.Write your own version without looking at the original.
3.Avoid repeating the grammatical structure of the original and merely replacing words with synonyms.
4.Reread the original to be sure you covered the main points but did not borrow specific language.
-When and How to quote:
beware of overusing quotations. Documents that contain pages of spliced-together quotations suggest that writers have few ideas of their own.
-To provide objective background data and establish the severity of a problem as seen by experts
-To repeat identical phrasing because of its precision, clarity, or aptness
-To duplicate exact wording before making critical statements
-Dinner and Business Etiquette
-Civility: incivility is defined as behavior that is considered disrespectful and inconsiderate of others.
-Polish: includes valuable traits such as making first impressions, shaking hands, improving one’s voice quality, listening, presentation skills, and more.
-Dinner and Business Etiquette: proper business attire, dining etiquette, and other aspects of your professional presentation can make or break your interview. This means that you will be judged on more than your college expertise.
-Social Intelligence: The ability to get along well with others and to get them to cooperate with you. Points to a deep understanding of culture and life that helps us negotiate interpersonal and social situations. Requires us to interact well, be perceptive, show sensitivity toward others, and grasp a situation quickly and accurately.
-soft skills: the top three soft skills on the manager’s wish list were the ability to prioritize work, a positive attitude, and teamwork skills.
-Pitch: use a relaxed, controlled, well-pitched voice to attract listeners to their message. Refers to sound vibration frequency. Want a rise and fall pitch.
-Volume and Rate: The volume of your voice is the loudness or the intensity of sound. Adjust the volume of your speaking to the occasion and your listeners. Rate refers to the pace of your speech. Want rate to be around 125 words a minute.
-Emphasis: you can change the meaning you are expressing. Beware of uptalk, which means using a rising inflection at the end of a sentence; making it sound like a question. This makes speakers seem weak.
2. Determine the speaker’s intent
3. Acknowledge what you are hearing
4. Paraphrase what was said.
5. Ask for more information if necessary
6. Agree- if the comments are accurate.
7. Disagree respectfully and constructively- if you feel the comments are unfair.
8. Look for a middle position
9. Learn from criticism
-Generally, use face-to-face communication
-Focus on improvement
-Offer to help
-Avoid broad generalizations
-Discuss the behavior, not the person
-Use the word WE rather than YOU
-Encourage two-way communication
– Avoid anger, sarcasm, and a raised voice.
– Keep it private
-Pick up the phone if something is urgent or can’t wait.
-Plan a mini agenda
-Use a three-point intro: When placing a call, immediately (a) name the person you are calling, (b) identify yourself and your affiliation, and (c) give a brief explanation of your reason for calling.
-Be brisk if you are rushed
-Be cheerful and accurate
-Be professional and courteous
-Ending the call: responsibility of the caller
-Avoid telephone tag
-Leave complete voice mail messages:Provide a complete message, including your name, telephone number, and the time and date of your call. Briefly explain your purpose so the receiver can be ready with the required information when returning your call.
4 to 5 members is the optimal numbers
-Agree on a purpose
-Agree on Procedures
A better plan is to acknowledge conflict and address the root of the problem openly
-Collaborate rather than compete
-Accept ethical responsibilities
-Share leadership: have no formal leader. Instead, leadership rotates to those with the appropriate expertise.
2. Deciding how and where to meet
3. selecting meeting participants
4. Using digital calendars to schedule meetings
5. Distributing an agenda and other info.
-Unless the meeting involves people who know each other well, participants in audioconferences should always say their names before beginning to comment.
-Meeting planners disagree on whether to require participants to put their phones on mute. Although the mute button reduces noise, it also prevents immediate participation and tends to deaden the conference. Remind the group to silence all electronic alerts and alarms.
-As a personal ground rule, don’t multitask—and that includes texting and checking e-mail—during virtual meetings. Giving your full attention is critical.
1.Capture listeners’ attention and get them involved.
2.Identify yourself and establish your credibility.
3.Preview your main points.
If you are able to appeal to listeners and involve them in your presentation right from the start, you are more likely to hold their attention until the finish. Consider some of the techniques you used to open sales letters: a question, a startling fact, a joke, a story, or a quotation.
To establish your credibility, you need to describe your position, knowledge, or experience—whatever qualifies you to speak. In addition, try to connect with your audience. Listeners respond particularly well to speakers who reveal something of themselves and identify with them.
After capturing attention and establishing your credibility, you will want to preview the main points of your topic, perhaps with a visual aid.
strategies and examples to help you organize a presentation:
-Geography and Space
-Journalistic pattern: Organized by who, what, when, where, why, and how.
-Best case/worst case
1.Summarize the main themes of the presentation.
2.Leave the audience with a specific and memorable take-away.
3.Include a statement that allows you to exit the podium gracefully.
In your conclusion you could use an anecdote, an inspiring quotation, or a statement that ties in the opener and offers a new insight. Whatever you choose, be sure to include a closing thought that indicates you are finished.
1. look terrific
2. Animate your body
3. Punctuate your words
4. Get out from behind the podium
5. Vary your facial expression
1. Avoid memorizing your presentation
2. Don’t read from your notes
3. Deliver your presentation extemporaneously
4. Know when notes are appropriate.
request a lectern (podium)
Check the room
Greet members of the audience
Practice stress reduction
-During your presentation:
To stay in control during your talk, to build credibility, and to engage your audience,
Start with a pause and present your first sentence from memory
Maintain eye contact
Control your voice and vocabulary
skip the apologies
slow down and know when to pause
use visual aids effectively
summarize your main points and drive home your message
-After your presentation:
handle questions and answers competently and provide handouts, if appropriate
encourage questions but keep control
reinforce your main points
avoid yes, but answers
end with a summary and appreciation