Business Communication

Effective communication
Occurs when the message is received and understood the way the sender intended . The best way to make sure the receiver has understood is to get feedback.
Benefits to effective communication
-improves employee satisfaction
-reduces conflict
-generates ideas
-transmits information
-more satisfied customers
-makes clear business objectives
-fewer production errors
-helps develop business strategies
-assist in problem solving
Poor Communicators
-slur or mumble words
-don’t listen
-no eye contact
-remain on their phone or do other things
-try to say too much at once
-lack of interest
-haven’t planned or thought about what questions might come up
-issues around power (e.g. employee & employer)
-conflicting instructions
-uses the wrong method of communication
Good Communicators
-Uses language clearly
-clear voice
-eye contact
-utilises good body language
-uses intonations well
-uses a range of verbal and non-verbal communication
-engage the listeners
-variety with vocab
-know what they are talking about
-change language for the audience they are talking to
Basic Communication Process
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION PROCESS:
sender or transmitter

l message feedback

receiver & decoder

TWO WAY COMMUNICATION:
communication that is open and encourages discussion and feedback.
e.g. phone calls, texts, emails, interviews, conversations

ONE WAY COMMUNICATION:
information is passed by the sender to receiver with no feedback.
e.g. PA announcements, assembly, letter/newsletters, reports

Verbal communication
The written or oral use of words to communicate.
Written examples: letter, email, text, books, newspaper, reports, magazines.
Oral examples: speeches, calls, conversations, YouTube, Skype, voice-mail, instructions face to face.

ADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION:
-its permanent
-more structured
-more likely to say what you mean
-time to edit and form communication
-can refer back to it

DISADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION:
-less emotion/ human contact
-can’t judge people reactions
-if you don’t understand you can’t ask
-less room for feedback
-slows down communication
-hard to determine tone

ADVANTAGES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION:
-quick response
-judge response and reaction
-body language
-opportunity for other opinion/ feedback
-socialise
-human contact
-context is easier

DISADVANTAGES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION:
-time consuming
-can’t ignore situation
-other’s not listening
-easy to forget
-issues with understanding
-sarcasm
-need to be present

Non-verbal communication
Any message that is not written or spoken.
Body language examples: gestures, the way you should stand, facial expression, crying, laughing, may you look at people, eye contact, tone of voice, body contact, way you dress.
Visual examples: Way you dress, tattoos, art, piercings, signs/symbols, colours, sign language, dance, pictures, shapes, logos, emojis, photos.

NON-VERBAL ADVANTAGES:
-register subconsciously
-can watch and understand instructions
-get past language barriers
-attractions
-say more with less

NON-VERBAL DISADVANTAGES:
-different across cultures
-discrimination and snap judgements
-different interpretations
-issues around disabilities

Body language
the use of gestures, facial expressions and posture to communicate.
Formal communication
Is the communication that follows company hierarchy and is official.
Informal communication
The talk that circulates the office that does not follow these formal channels (top down, bottom up, sideways) and is often rumour or gossip. Referred to as the grapevine.
Top-down communication (FC)
CEO
|
General manager
|
Managers
|
Team Leaders
|
Staff
Bottom- up communication (FC)
Staff
|
Team Leaders
|
Managers
|
General Managers
|
CEO
Sideways communication (FC)
managers – managers
team leaders – team leaders
staff – staff
Grapevine
the unofficial and informal communication system which is superimposed on the formal network.
Internal communication
communications that take place within the business.
External communication
Is concerned with how a business communicates with and is viewed by other businesses and stakeholders from outside the business.

People the business will communicate with outside the business are: suppliers, customers, media, government, interest groups, general public and local community.

Purpose of business communication
PROVIDE INFO:
-info about sales
-rosters
-safety procedures
-termination and redundancies
-policy changes
-prices
-location
-social events

SHARE IDEAS:
-new products
-new marketing strategies
-how to improve
-sharing info
-how to do something
-training

GET TO KNOW PEOPLE
-hiring staff
-social events
-networking
-team work
-training
-regular customer

APPRAISE EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE
-feedback and recognition of good work
-formal appraisal meetings

GATHER INFO
-employee satisfaction
-availability of staff
-competitors
-customer satisfaction
-suppliers products and prices
-sales info
-staff turnover
-gross profit
-target markets

CLARIFY ISSUES
-checking rumours
-customer complaints
-employees well being
-feedback from staff or customers

PERSUADE
-sales
-up sales or extras
-advertising
-bargaining with suppliers
-persuade staff on new ideas
-meetings
-staff to work
-repurchasing
-deals (2 for 1)

GIVE INSTRUCTIONS
-cleaning
-how to take sick leave
-for new staff members
-management to staff
-communicate to customers how to use products

What makes a good manager
-relate to the staff
-understand the roles of the staff
-not up yourself and respect others
-approachable
-good communication skills
-reasonable
-authority
-decision making
-problem solving skills
-deal well with stress
-persuasion
-patience
-good at teaching
How to determine the communication method to use
-what is the content of the message
-who is the receiver
-where is the receiver
-is a permanent record of the message needed
-is a quick response required
-what technology is available
-is the message intended for a public or private audience
Managerial roles POLC
Managers are influenced on a daily basis by different people and situations, each requiring different methods of communication. In every business managers have to fulfil the following roles:

Planning
Organising
Leading
Controlling

P POLC
Planning is the process of defining objectives and determining methods or strategies which will be used to achieve those objectives.

In this role managers will need to set and communicate objective. Communication methods include:
-attending board meetings
-writing documents
-speaking at functions
-preparing budgets

O POLC
Organising is the process management goes through when attempting to arrange resources (staff ect) to match up with tasks in order to achieve the objectives of the organisation.

In this role mangers need to ensure staff know their tasks and expected performance communication methods include:
-meeting with subordinates
-writing and answering letters, emails, phone calls ect
-preparing rosters
-writing and distributing policies and procedures
-writing position descriptions

L POLC
Leading occurs when managers endeavour to influence or motivate people in the organisation to work to achieve the organisations objectives.

In this role managers need to motivate people. Communication methods include:
-Conducting presentations
-Meeting with subordinates
-Negotiating and bargaining face to face
-Producing company newsletters or other staff communicators
-Collaborate with other staff members

C POLC
Controlling is the process management goes through when it attempts to evaluate performance and take corrective action to ensure the objectives are being achieved.

In this role managers need to monitor the performance of employees and business’s goals. Communication methods include:
-Conducting performance appraisals
-conducting media interviews
-writing reports on business progress
-issuing media releases
-speaking with people outside the business

Management Styles
Management control (more to less)
Autocratic
Persuasive
Consultative
Participate
Laissez-faire

AUTOCRATIC- do it the way I tell you
A management style where the manager tends to make all the decisions, dictating work methods, limiting employee knowledge about what needs to be done and frequently checking on employee performance. Top down communication and one way communication.

PERSUASIVE- I think it’s best if you do it this way
-An extension of the autocratic style, the persuasive management style is one where the manager attempts to make employees think that management’s way is the correct way of doing things.
-Managers try and gain trust and support through persuasion.
-Again top-down communication with little feedback.

CONSULTATIVE- I put people first, the task second.
-A consultative management style is one where the manager recognises the importance of good personal relationship among employees and consult with staff on certain issues before making a decision.
– Communication has more room for feedback and is two way. Management asks for suggestions and shares ideas. More bottom up and sideways communication.

PARTICIPATIVE- I believe the people have something to contribute
-A participative management style is one where the manager not only consults with employees but also gives them the responsibility in the management of the process. The manager shares the decision making authority with others, often voting on issues. Motivation with employees is often high. Works well in small organisations.
-Communication is a two way process, lots of contributions from all members of the organisation, face to face being important.

LAISSEZ-FAIRE- the employees can take complete control
– A laissez-faire management style is one where employees are responsible for workplace operations.Management has no central role or power. Management sets objectives but employees are responsible for achieving them. Common in uni research.
-Communication is bottom up, all ideas shared.

Autocratic style
Advantages:
-less room for error
-things happen quickly
-everyone knows what they are doing
-good for people who struggle to make decisions

Disadvantages:
-Cause conflict as lots of people don’t like being told what to do
-People have no say in what they are going to do.
-Limited with new ideas
-Employees can’t think for themselves
-No feedback so manager doesn’t know if things are working or how to improve
-can lead to high staff turnover

Participative Style
Advantages;
-staff are happy as they are contributing to the business
-could be less stress on the manger as they aren’t making all the decisions
-more points of view or ideas from staff
-staff have ownership and feel important
-less staff turnover
-managers have better relationships with staff

Disadvantages:
-Things don’t happen quickly
-Can compromise efficiency as individuals all expect their idea or opinion to be the right one
-Not appropriate for big business or business where things need to be precise
-Staff might feel manager not as competent as they don’t make decisions
-Decision making responsibilities are not clear

Management skills
The ability or expertise needed in order to achieve their work. Effective managers possess a range of skills that they can use in a number of management roles.
Negotiation
-Is the ability to discuss and come to an agreement over issues of conflict
-It requires effective communication in order to reach a compromise between two parties where agreements and consensus cannot be reached.
-Inability to resolve disputes well can have a serious negative consequence for an organisation.
Steps in a successful negotiation process for manager would include:
-Plan the negotiation have a fall back position and know when to compromise
-choose a suitable environment for the negotiation to take place
-express our position to the other party
-identify differences then negotiate towards a mutual agreeable win win situation.
-all parties are to confirm their understanding of the agreement
Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence relates to a persons ability to:
-Understand their own emotions or be self aware
-Self manage or control their emotional impulse (even temperament)
-Be socially aware, that is to know and understand the emotions of those around you and to take these into consideration.

-It is argued that managers with well-developed emotional intelligence excel in the workplace in terms of relationships with subordinates. It is suggested that is assists a leaders ability to determine a persons capability to work in a team or lead.
-It will also help a manger to lead, motivate and recognise stress in an employee.

Decision making and problem solving
-Decision making involves making choices among possible course of action.
-Decisions are made either to solve a problem or take up an opportunity.
-Problem solving consists of making a series of decisions
-Decision making and problem solving and closely linked with the management role of Planning.

-Management theory recommends a logical and systematic approach to decision making.
1: identify the problem (or opportunity)
2:Gather the facts
3: Develop a set of alternative solutions or actions
4:Implement the most suitable solution or action
5: Evaluate the progress to determine of the decision has been effective

Policy
is an established set of board guidelines to be followed by all employees in an organisation:
-OH+S policy
-Email policy
-Social media policy
-Equal opportunity policy
Procedure
are practical way of putting policy into action. They are the steps that enable policy to be carried out.
-steps to follow if you see an OH+S issue
-steps to follow to send out an all staff email
-steps that will be followed if you break a social media policy
-how to file a complaint for cases of discrimination
Policy development process
1 identify the issue: -external or internal pressures
2 research: -how to deal with it
– what works
3 develop policy: -team of people write the policy
– lawyers
4 review: -open up stakeholders for comment
-revise documents
5 distribute+communicate:
-no point sending it out without people reading and understanding it
-staff to sign off
6 monitor +evaluate:
-new issues arise
-changes to legislation etc
Barriers to communication
COMMUNICATION BARRIERS
Are anything that distorts or interrupts the message and its meaning.

LANGUAGE
Words can be a barrier to language communication. This can include jargon, discriminatory language and negative language. This can result in a miscommunication. An example of this is politicians using complicated language that the everyday person can’t understand.

FILTERING
Leaves out information about something thereby reducing the accuracy of the communication. An example of this is saying to a teacher I left it in my locker but I’ll give it to you by the end of the day when you haven’t fully finished it and you do it at lunch.
Often when a sender manipulates information about something is so the receiver will see it in a better light.

IMPROPER ATTITUDE
Is an improper way to communicate to an employee, an example of this is talking down to an employee when angry, this will most likely lead to the employee misunderstanding or stop listening to the information being shared due to the way it is being delivered.

INFORMATION OVERLOAD
Is where an excess amount of information is causing the reader to become overwhelmed and can cause the employee to become stressed and not operate well, which will lead to a decrease in productivity.

CULTURAL DIFFERENCES
In other cultures people can be offended by things that we consider normal, such as certain types of language use, body language and gestures. Because of this the business may need to alter the way in which they communicate.

PERCEPTION
Is the process through which people select, organise and interpret information to create meaning. The way we see and hear things isn’t always the same as everyone around us.

THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Is the environment which the employees work in, this includes interruptions, background activities and noise which may cause interference with your work. At the moment a lot of businesses have an open floor plan which enhances communication between employees/ However with this open floor plan some employees may find it difficult to concentrate on their work.

HEARING BUT NOT LISTENING
Active Listening: aims to produce trust and cooperation, and involves the listener remaining silent, but playing close attention to the mood and words the speaker is using. The active listener may later paraphrase the speakers message and describe the speakers mood. The listener should wait for the speaker to finish speaking before providing feedback.

methods of communication
-phone call
-email
-newsletter
-announcement , etc
one way communication
where no response is given the message is just received and decoded from the sender to the receiver, for example an announcement.
two way communication
where a response is given by the receiver to the sender, for example a phone call between friends.