BUS 305 Final

identify and fully describe the four steps taken in solving a business problem.
problem identification – understand what kind of problem exists. before problems are solved, there must be agreement that a problem exists, about what the problem is, about what its causes are, and about what can be done about the problem given the limited resources

solution design – there are usually a great deal of solutions to any one problem. as many different options should be considered as possible. this will increase the chance of being able to effectively solve all aspects of a problem especially large scale

solution evaluation and choice – choosing the best solution for one’s business. things to consider include: cost, feasibility, and time. also it is crucial to monitor the support of workers and managers behind the selected solution.

implementation – involves building the solution and introducing it into the business. purchasing and building of new software is necessary here. change management is also an important step at this point. this includes restraining employees on how the business now runs including becoming familiar with new software systems or even hiring or firing employees depending on the needs and goals of the company.

identify the three levels in an organization and identify and fully describe the four different types of business information systems used by these different levels.
the three levels of management in a company are:

senior management – makes long range strategic decisions about products and services as well as ensures financial performance of a firm

middle management – carries out the programs and plans of the senior management. consists of knowledge workers: engineers, scientists, or architects

operational management – responsible for monitoring the daily activities of the firm. consists of data workers: secretaries or clerks. consists of service workers: cashiers or janitors

four types of information systems:

transaction processing system: computerized systems that perform and record the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct the business, they serve the operational level. tracks the flow of transactions within the business

management information systems – provides reports in organizational performance to help middle management monitor and control the business and predict the future of the business. takes the individual data collected by TPS and forms it into reports

decision support systems – information systems at the organization’s management level that combine data and sophisticated analytical models or data analysis tools to support semi structured and unstructured decision making. combines TPS and MIS adding in dat from external sources.

executive support systems – information systems at the organization’s strategic level designed to address unstructured decision making through advanced graphics and communications. help senior managers make non-routine decisions. meant to combine TPS and DSS information and include information covering all aspects of a problem and the solution

identify and fully describe at least four business benefits of collaboration.
productivity – people interacting and working together can capture expert knowledge and solve problems more rapidly than the same number of people working in isolation from one another. fewer errors.

quality – people work collaboratively can communicate errors, and corrective actions faster than if they work in isolation. reduce time delays in design and production

innovation – people working together to can come up with more innovative ideas for products, services, and administration than the same number working in isolation.

customer service – people working together can solve customer complaints and issues faster and more effectively than those working in isolation

discuss the full impact of the internet on the five separate areas of the competitive forces model.
substitute products or services – enable new substitutes to emerge with new approaches to meeting needs and performing functions

customers bargaining power – shifts bargaining power to the customer due to the availability of global price and product information

suppliers bargaining power – loses power to customers, but can benefit from reduced barriers of entries and the elimination of distributors

threat of new entrants – reduces barriers to entry, ie need for sales force, access to channels, and many physical assets. it provides a technology for driving business processes that make other things easier to do

positioning and rivalry among existing users – widens the geographic market, increasing the number of competitors and reducing differences among them. puts pressure to compete on price

list and fully describe the five moral dimensions of the information age.
information rights and obligations – what information rights do individuals and businesses have? can they protect them?

property right and obligations – how will traditional intellectual rights be protected

accountability and control – who will be held accountable and liable for all damage done to information and property rights

system quality – what standards should we demand to protect the information rights of individuals and society

quality of life – what values of life will be in jeopardy because of the new technology and how will they be protected

identify the five steps in conducting an ethical analysis.
identify and describe the facts – find out who did what, to whom, when, where, and why. agreeing on the facts is the first step in finding a solution

define the conflict and identify the higher order values involved – an ethical issues involves two parties of opposed actions because of values. the two sides must clearly be defined as well as the specific values each one is defending

identify stakeholders – this is everyone associated with the issue who is interested in the outcome, invested in the situation, and usually voice their opinion. list who they are and what they want

identify the options that you can reasonably take – often none of the options satisfy all parties however some do a better job than others, weigh them

identify the potential consequences – figure out what will happen over time with each option

identify and fully define the six ethical principles discussed in your text.
the golden rule – do unto others as you would have them do unto you

immanuel kant’s categorical imperative – if an action is not right for everyone to take it is not right for anyone to take

descartes’ rule of change – if an action cannot be repeatedly taken, it is not the right action to take at all.

utilitarian principle – take the action that achieves the higher or greater value

risk aversion principle – take the action that produces the least harm or the least potential cost

no free lunch rule – all tangible and intangible objects are owned by someone unless specified otherwise. nothing is free

identify and fully describe the five major categories of IT infrastructure.
computer hardware – technology for computer processing, data storage, input, and output. examples include: servers, computer, and mobile devices

computer software – manages the resources and activities of the computer. can be set to work toward a specific task

data management technology – organizes, manages, and processes business data concerned with inventory, customers, and vendors

networking and telecommunications – provides data, voice, and video connectivity to employees, customers, and suppliers

technology services – external businesses that help in all aspects of technology and infrastructure especially integrating old systems with new technology and new systems

what is scalability? why is it essential to the success of the modern business firm?
the ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a large number of users without breaking them down. a business that hopes to expand and does grow has to be able to have IT that grows with the company to ensure efficiency and revenue
identify and fully describe the three basic operations used to extract useful sets of data from a relational database.
select – creates a subset consisting of all records in the file that meet stated criteria

join – combines relational tables to provide the user with more information than is available in individual tables

project – creates a subset consisting of columns in a table, permitting the user to create new tables that contain only the information required

fully explain the meaning of “big data.” what benefits does it have, and what challenges does it pose?
big data refers to data sets with volumes so huge that they are beyond the ability of typical DBMS to capture, store, and analyze. big data are produced more rapidly and in larger quantities than regular data

benefits: contain more patterns and anomalies in relation to customers

challenges: it requires new technology to be put in place, and tools that manage and analyze non-traditional data, big data use can be expensive, sometimes the answers do not come back clear

fully define a fault-tolerant computer system and a high-availability computer system. how do they differ?
fault tolerant computer system – systems that contain hardware, software, and power supply components that can back a system up and keep it running to prevent system failure

high availability computer system – tools and technologies, including back up hardware resources, to enable a system to recover quickly from a crash

identify at least four benefits and four challenges of enterprise systems.
benefits –

increase operation efficiency
provides firm wide information to help managers make better decisions
helps a business respond better and faster to a customer request
helps recognize costs and helps show where they can be cut

challenges –

involves complex pieces of software that are hard to learn and train employees to understand
software is expensive
every job essentially changes
upon first implementation information is often lost

identify and fully describe the two types of customer relationship management applications.
operation CRM – includes customer facing applications, such as tools for sales force automation, call center and customer service

analytical CRM – includes applications that analyze customer data generated by operational CRM applications to provide information for improving business performance

identify five benefits of customer-relationship management systems.
captures and integrates customer data from all over the business or organizations

consolidates the data

analyzes the data

distributes the results to the various systems

provides a single enterprise view of customers

list and fully describe the three main categories of electronic commerce.
business to consumer – electronic commerce involves retailing products and services to individual shoppers

business to business – electronic commerce involves sales of goods and services among businesses

consumer to consumer – electronic commerce involves consumers selling directly to consumers

list and fully describe the quality dimensions of decision making.
accuracy – decision reflects reality

comprehensiveness – decision reflects a full consideration of the facts and circumstances

fairness – decision faithfully reflects the concerns and interests of affected parties

speed – decision making is efficient with respect to time and other resources

coherence – decision reflects a rational process that can be explained to others and made understandable

due process – decision is the result of a known process and can be appealed to a higher authority

what is the business value of a GDSS?
makes all group activities more effective

think “in meetings”

provides computers and data displayed in charts and graphs

increases overall productivity

identify and fully describe the main five systems development approaches.
systems development lifecycles – six step waterfall program

prototyping – building a new system rapidly and inexpensively for testing

end-user development – allows people with little or no experience to create new systems

application software packages – preloaded, customizable systems for business functions

outsourcing – sending problems to other businesses to solve