Bureaucracy, Budget, and Policy

Bureaucracy
Bureaucracy
Def: Groups charged with work that is structured and hierchical.
Gen: Two types are staff and line. Staff is a support staff that provides any formation or other way a support for the person they are working for. Line writes and enforces laws/rules
Independent Regulatory Agency
Independent Regulatory Agency
Def: Make rules and monitor that people are following those
Gen: The environmental protection agency regulates anything that has to do with reducing environmental risk and health.
Independent Executive Agency
Independent Executive Agency
Def: Non-Partisan and outside the presidents day to day control
Gen: The NASA is an example because the president has no direct involvement since the president is not an expert in this area
Executive Office of the President
Executive Office of the President
Def: Made up of people who work directly with the president on a daily basis, providing the president with information and advice on all aspects of policy making and enforcement
Gen: Such as the National Security Council who adivices and assists the president on national security and foreign policies.
Cabinet
Cabinet
Def: 16 advisors to the president who specialized in a policy area; each adivisor heads a whole department.
Gen: Departmenf of interior in charge of protecting people culture, heritage, and cultural land.
Bureaucratic accountability
Def: The degree to which bureaucrats are held accountable for the power they exercise.
Gen: An example will be congressional commitees overseeing how the policy is being overseen
Hatch Act
Def: 1939 law limiting the political involvement of civil servants in order to protect them from political pressure and keep politics out of the bureaucracy
Gen: The hatch Act was created because one of the bureaucratic problems was that those who are already working within the bureaucracy could inffluence elections because of their connections with media or other offices
Office of Personnel Management
Def: The office in charge of hiring for most agencies of the federal government, using elaborate rules in the process.
Gen: The OMP was created because there has to be certain rules to hire people since the bureaucracy is so big.
Merit System
Def: Is a test and also a protocals that must be followed in ordered to get a job in the bureacracy
Gen: It was mainly made to eliminate baisnesss when hiring people for ex. if someone knew someone who works in the bureaucracy they might get an advantage because the bureaucrat may just give the person the job
Spoils system
Def: The firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party and their replacement with loyalist of the newly elected party
Gen: This systme in a way help shape the merit system because this systems fires people who might be already be experienced and replace them with people who fall under the same political party of the president
Government Corporation
Def: Businesses established by Congress that perform functions that could be provided by private businesses ( U.S Postal Service)
Gen: A corporation like the U.S Postal Service is provided to help keep mail private.
Privatization
Def: Is the process of transferring an enterprise or industry from the public sector to the private sector. The public sector is the part of the economic system that is run by government agencies.
Gen: The government might do this in an attempt to earn money especially for times for inflation or recession.
Reinventing Government
Reinventing Government
Def: Concept about how the government should function in a new manner.
Gen: The reason for having the government function in a new way is the we have learned from passed experiences such as the great depression what has or not worked. Theb applied to a new systme or policy to prevent such worse things.
Seven Step Policy-Making
Seven Step Policy-Making
Def: 1. Problem Recognition and Definition 2. Aganda Setting 3. Policy Formulation 4. Policy Adoption 5. Budgeting 6. Policy Implementation 7. Policy Evaluation
Gen: Monetary Policy 1.inflation or recession 2. Put on federal reserve agenda 3. Board of governors 4. Done by federal reserve 5. Determine if necessary 6. Private banks carryout policy 7. Report to congress (banking committees)
Monetary Policy
Def: Banking policy about interest rates and supply of money, by manipulation of interest rates and the amount that banks can loan.
Gen: A tight policy will be made if inflation is going on and a easy policy will be made if a recession is going on.
Federal Reserve
Def: The country’s central banking system, which is responsible for the nation’s monetary policy by regulating the supply of money and interest rates.
Gen: Makes monetary policies according to how the economy is doing
Chair of the Fed
Def: The head of the central banking system of the United States.
Gen: Has great power since he/she leads the federal reserve and controls what decisions should be made
Keynesian Economics
Def: Government should intervene in the economy through spending and taxation to promote economic opportunity and security for all Americans.
Gen: This theory has helped shape our Fiscal policy and has helped make the impacts of recession or inflation less harsh and has also helped stabalize the economy
Revenue
Def:Government income
Gen: During inflation the government increases revenue to slow spending. In recession the government decreases revenue because they want the people to have money in their pockets.
Expenditure
Def: Government spending
Gen: During inflation the governement decreases expenditure because people have money and jobs. During recession thr government increases expenditures to provide more employment
Deficit and Debt
Def: Debt happens when there is a surplus of revenue. Deficif happens when there is a lot spending going on.
Gen: The reason debt happens is because the government has dereased both revenue and spending, so the government takes more than it spends.
Fiscal policy
Def: Government manipulation of taxes and spending in order to inffluence aggregate demand during times of recession or infflation
Gen: Tight policy during inflation to decrease aggregate demand and easy policy to incresse aggregate demand
Budgetary Process
Def: It is a seven to ten step process in order to get a budget passed and it has a lot reviewing and changing of budget.
Gen: The budgetary is a long process because the countries budget is taking into account and research has to be done so appropriations can be distributed.
Office of Management and Budget
Def: Executive office responsible for helping the President write the federal budget and monitoring federal spending.
Gen: The OMB recieves budget requests and compares to what they spend the year before to come up with a budget
Congressional Budget Office
Def: Advises Congress on the probable consequences of its decisions, forecasts revenues, and is a counterweight to the president’s Office of Management and Budget
Gen: The CBO recieves proposed budget, evaluates it and gives recommendations.
Regulation and Deregulation
Def: Regulation is the process of governments passing laws to control certain activities, often restricting some business activities. Deregulation is the opposite process of governments removing these restrictions and granting businesses greater freedom.
Gen: An example will be the United States Postal Servive because it is a governement owned corporation and more regulation can be done than if it was an independent corporation.
Social Policy
Def: , A national government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.
Gen: An example will be social security because it promotes some kind of security for people’s future even if it is little. Another example will be the no child left begind acf and it basically raised thd standards for all schools.
Majoritarian Social Welfare Policy and Politics
Majoritarian Social Welfare Policy and Politics
Def: A social policy that covers all Americans.
Gen: An example will be medicare because it cover all people who have social security.
Client-Based Social Welfare Policy and Politics
Client-Based Social Welfare Policy and Politics
Def: Policy that’s geared to a specific group
Gen: An example will be food stamps because it is specifically for people and families in need who can get this financial support
21st Century Foreign Policy
Def: It has recently created a debate with people on whether to go straight to war or trying to negotiate.
Gen: An example will be the Iraq war president Bush made an impulse decision to go into iraq and overthrow thier government in search of WPS with not much evidence. Another example will be the Vietnam war not a lot people supported this foreign policy
Executive Branch and Foreign Policy
Def: Executive Branch is made up of the president himself but also the WHO, EOP, cabinet, regulatory, independent and government corporation agencies. Foreign policy invoves the cabinet, EOP, agencies and the president.
Gen: The general Public can also have a say because if they dont agree with what is going on they will speak up against it.
Majoritarian Foreign Policy
Def: Policy thar affects may countries at once
Gen: An example will be the UN Arms Treaty (U.S./U.N. Treaty) which regulates the international arms trade.
Client-Based Foreign Policy and Politics
Def: Specific target policy aimed at a particular country
Gen: An example will be the alliance between Canada and US, which has remained strong for decades.
United Nations
Def: , An international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 50 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.
Gen: One of the main interests of the UN is the defense of countries and they tried to keep all countries up to date so they won’t be vulnerable to attacks
UN Security Council
Def: A body of 5 great powers and 10 rotating members that makes decisions about international peace and security, including the dispatch of UN peacekeeping
Gen: When the U.S thought there was WMPs in Iraq, the UN security Council stepped in and sent inpectors to search for weapons.
National Interests
Def: A country’s goals and ambitions whether economic, military, or cultural.
Gen: Throughout this unit we looked at different policies that have been made to make our country more strong and stable.