BUAD309 Chapter 7 Practice Questions

1) ________ is defined as the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
A) Leadership
B) Management
C) Learning
D) Emotional labor
E) Motivation
E) Motivation
2) The ________ dimension of motivation measures how long a person can maintain effort.
A) direction
B) persistence
C) intensity
D) knowledge
E) experience
B) persistence
3) The ________ element of motivation describes how hard a person tries.
A) intelligence
B) experience
C) direction
D) intensity
E) persistence
D) intensity
4) Which level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs deals with satisfying one’s hunger, thirst, and other bodily needs?
A) safety
B) physiological
C) social
D) esteem
E) psychological
B) physiological
The church you go to every Sunday is made up of people who have very different lifestyles and are at different stages in their life. Joanna is a 23-year-old, single parent who works for minimum wage and shifts from motel to motel for accommodation. Josephine is a single, 45-year-old woman who earns a decent salary and has few interests and friends outside her office. Jonathan is 60 years old, extremely wealthy, has a loving family, and enjoys his work. You have decided to apply Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to determine what motivates each of these individuals.

5) Which of the following needs would most likely motivate Joanna?
A) social
B) esteem
C) physiological
D) self-actualization
E) safety

C) physiological
8) According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which of the following is a lower-order need?
A) social
B) safety
C) esteem
D) self-actualization
E) recognition
B) safety
9) If we consider Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in the context of Japan, Greece, and Mexico, where uncertainty-avoidance characteristics are strong then ________ needs would be on top of the hierarchy.
A) self actualization
B) security
C) social
D) esteem
E) growth
B) security
10) Which of the following needs in Maslow’s hierarchy refers to the drive to become what one is capable of becoming?
A) social
B) self-actualization
C) physiological
D) esteem
E) safety
B) self-actualization
11) Why is Maslow’s theory criticized?
A) The concept of self-actualization was unfounded.
B) There is little evidence that needs are structured or operate in the way it describes.
C) The esteem need is a more powerful motivator than self-actualization.
D) Its terminology tends to alienate those to whom it is applied.
E) It does not adequately describe how an organization can satisfy higher-order needs.
B) There is little evidence that needs are structured or operate in the way it describes.
12) According to Douglas McGregor’s Theory Y, a manager assumes that employees ________.
A) need to be directed
B) prefer to be controlled
C) learn to accept responsibility
D) need to be micromanaged
E) attempt to avoid work
C) learn to accept responsibility
13) If Alberta is a categorized as a Theory X manager, which of the following behaviors is she most likely to exhibit?
A) She will empower her subordinates.
B) She will trust her employees to use their discretion in most matters.
C) She will strictly control all the details of any project she is managing.
D) She will delegate authority extensively to junior managers.
E) She will let her employees choose their own goals.
C) She will strictly control all the details of any project she is managing.
14) The ________ theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory.
A) hierarchy of needs
B) goal-setting
C) self-determination
D) cognitive evaluation
E) two-factor
E) two-factor
15) Which of the following theories proposes the idea of a dual continuum?
A) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
B) self-determination theory
C) two-factor theory
D) cognitive evaluation theory
E) McClelland’s theory of needs
C) two-factor theory
16) According to the two-factor theory, ________.
A) there exists a hierarchy of needs within every human being, and as each need is satisfied, the next one becomes dominant
B) most employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or even coerced into performing it
C) employees view work as being as natural as rest or play, and therefore learn to accept, and even seek, responsibility
D) the aspects that lead to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction
E) achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation
D) the aspects that lead to job satisfaction are separate
17) Which of the following is a motivational factor, according to Herzberg’s two-factor theory?
A) quality of supervision
B) recognition
C) pay
D) relationships with others
E) company policies
B) recognition
18) According to the two-factor theory proposed by Herzberg, which of the following is considered a hygiene factor?
A) promotional opportunities
B) quality of supervision
C) achievement
D) recognition
E) responsibility
B) quality of supervision
19) According to Herzberg, when ________ are adequate, people won’t be dissatisfied, but they will also not be satisfied.
A) achievement needs
B) affiliation needs
C) motivational factors
D) power needs
E) hygiene factors
E) hygiene factors
20) McClelland’s theory is based on which of the following needs?
A) stability, growth, and security
B) achievement, power, and affiliation
C) self-actualization, stability, and safety
D) hygiene, control, and security
E) control, status, and self-actualization
B) achievement, power, and affiliation
You manage a department of five employees. You have identified that Joe has a high need for achievement, Mary has a high need for power, and Tim has a high need for affiliation. Sarah scored high on the need for power and low on the need for affiliation. Doug scored low on both need for power and need for affiliation.

21) Which of these five employees is most likely to be suitable for a new assignment that involves a high degree of personal responsibility and feedback?
A) Joe
B) Mary
C) Tim
D) Sarah
E) Doug

A) Joe
23) Erika wants to become the head of the HR department. Although the role comes with a generous salary hike and will put her in charge of several subordinates, she is mainly pursuing this position because she believes she can do the job better than anyone else and wants people to know this. According to McClelland’s theory of needs, which of the following needs is Erika primarily driven by in this case?
A) the need for stability
B) the need for achievement
C) the need for security
D) the need for affiliation
E) the need for power
B) the need for achievement
24) Which of the following statements is true according to McClelland’s theory of needs ?
A) People with a high achievement need prefer tasks that have a high level of risk.
B) People with a high achievement need are interested in motivating others to do well.
C) People with a high need for power and affiliation often make good managers in large firms.
D) People with a high achievement need experience great satisfaction from success that comes by luck.
E) People with a high need for power and a low need for affiliation often make the best managers.
E) People with a high need for power and a low need for affiliation often make the best managers.
25) Which of following needs, as detailed by Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, best corresponds to McClelland’s need for affiliation?
A) safety
B) social
C) esteem
D) self-actualization
E) physiological
B) social
26) Which of the following theories proposes that people prefer to feel they have control over their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely chosen activity will undermine motivation?
A) self-serving theory
B) motivation-hygiene theory
C) two-factor theory
D) self-determination theory
E) goal setting theory
D) self-determination theory
27) Which of the following statements is true regarding the cognitive evaluation theory?
A) People need extrinsic rewards in order to be motivated.
B) Extrinsic rewards tend to reduce intrinsic interest in a task.
C) Intrinsic rewards are almost as effective as extrinsic rewards.
D) Externally imposed standards of work largely improve intrinsic motivation.
E) Extrinsic rewards, including verbal praise, significantly decrease intrinsic motivation.
B) Extrinsic rewards tend to reduce intrinsic interest in a task.
28) Self-determination theory proposes that in addition to being driven by a need for autonomy, people seek ways to achieve ________.
A) competence and positive connections
B) high rewards
C) recognition and status
D) career growth
E) power and control
A) competence and positive connections
29) Rachel’s parents used to pay her an allowance every week to feed the cats and to do a few other chores around the house. However, once her mother lost her job, her parents stopped giving her an allowance. Although Rachel quit making her bed every morning, she still continued to feed the cats. Which of the following best explains why Rachel continues to feed the cats?
A) Without the extrinsic reward, the task itself is eliminated.
B) With the extrinsic reward, the execution of the task relies on internal motivation.
C) Without the intrinsic reward, the execution of the task relies on external motivation.
D) Without the extrinsic reward, the execution of the task relies on internal motivation.
E) With the intrinsic reward, the execution of the task relies on external motivation.
D) Without the extrinsic reward, the execution of the task relies on internal motivation.
30) The concept of ________ considers how strongly peoples’ reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values.
A) self-serving bias
B) self-fulfilling prophecy
C) self-concordance
D) self-actualization
E) self-efficacy
C) self-concordance
31) The investment of an employee’s physical, cognitive, and emotional energies into job performance is called ________.
A) vicarious modeling
B) self-determination
C) job engagement
D) management by objectives
E) job analysis
C) job engagement
32) Which of the following statements is true regarding goal-setting theory?
A) Goal commitment is more likely when individuals have an external locus of control.
B) Externally generated feedback is more powerful than self-generated feedback.
C) Generalized goals produce a higher level of output as compared to specific goals.
D) People do better when they get feedback on how well they are progressing toward their goals.
E) Assigned goals generate greater goal commitment in low rather than high power-distance cultures.
D) People do better when they get feedback on how well they are progressing toward their goals.
33) According to goal-setting theory, goals are more likely to have a stronger impact on performance when ________.
A) goals have long time frames for completion
B) tasks are complex rather than simple
C) tasks are novel rather than well learned
D) goals are easy rather than difficult
E) tasks are independent rather than interdependent
E) tasks are independent rather than interdependent.
34) MBO emphasizes goals that are ________.
A) tangible, verifiable, and measurable
B) achievable, controllable, and profitable
C) inspirational, verifiable, and creative
D) tangible, rewarding, and assigned
E) profitable, attainable, and self-set
A) tangible, verifiable, and measurable
35) MBO provides individual employees with ________.
A) personal performance objectives
B) greater work supervision
C) predefined targets
D) generalized feedback
E) clear-cut growth paths
A) personal performance objectives
36) Unlike in the case of goal-setting theory, MBO strongly advocates ________.
A) self-generated feedback
B) explicit time periods
C) participatively set goals
D) independent tasks
E) specific performance objectives
C) participatively set goals
37) The ________ theory is also known as the social cognitive theory or the social learning theory.
A) two-factor
B) self-determination
C) goal-setting
D) self-efficacy
E) reinforcement
D) self-efficacy
38) ________ refers to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
A) Emotional contagion
B) Affect intensity
C) Self-efficacy
D) Self-determination
E) Reinforcement
C) Self-efficacy
39) According to Albert Bandura, the most important source of increasing self-efficacy is ________.
A) arousal
B) vicarious modeling
C) verbal persuasion
D) enactive mastery
E) cognitive learning
D) enactive mastery
40) Which of the following sources of increasing self-efficacy involves gaining relevant experience with a particular task or job?
A) verbal persuasion
B) enactive mastery
C) vicarious modeling
D) arousal
E) cognitive learning
B) enactive mastery
41) One of the sources of self-efficacy is ________, becoming more confident because you see someone else doing the task.
A) arousal
B) enactive mastery
C) visualization
D) vicarious modeling
E) verbal persuasion
D) vicarious modeling
42) With reference to the four sources of self-efficacy as proposed by Albert Bandura, verbal persuasion involves becoming more confident ________.
A) because you have gained relevant experience with the particular task or job
B) because you see someone else doing the particular task or job
C) because someone convinces you that you have the skills necessary to be successful
D) because you are rewarded for performing a similar task well
E) because you get energized or “psyched up” to perform the particular task or job
C) because someone convinces you that you have the skills necessary to be successful
43) Which of the following ways of increasing self-efficacy is generally used by motivational speakers?
A) arousal
B) enactive mastery
C) focused training
D) vicarious modeling
E) verbal persuasion
E) verbal persuasion
44) The Pygmalion effect is also called the ________ effect.
A) halo
B) self-concordance
C) Galatea
D) self-determination
E) pseudocertainty
C) Galatea
45) The best way for a manager to use verbal persuasion is through the ________, a form of self-fulfilling prophecy in which believing something can make it true.
A) confirmation bias
B) Pygmalion effect
C) anchoring bias
D) framing effect
E) Electra complex
B) Pygmalion effect
46) A(n) ________ is any consequence, immediately following a response, that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated.
A) conclusion
B) reinforcer
C) goal
D) objective
E) referent
B) reinforcer
47) The proponents of reinforcement theory view behavior as ________.
A) the result of a cognitive process
B) environmentally caused
C) a reflection of the inner state of the individual
D) a function of one’s power need
E) a product of heredity
B) environmentally caused
48) ________ argues that people learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don’t want.
A) Theory Y
B) Theory X
C) Social cognitive theory
D) Operant conditioning theory
E) McClelland’s theory of needs
D) Operant conditioning theory
49) To get the best results while using reinforcement theory, rewards should be ________.
A) small and given only once
B) large and given at irregular intervals
C) given prior to the desired behavior response
D) given immediately following the desired behavior
E) presented publicly with a large number of witnesses
D) given immediately following the desired behavior
50) Helen, a high school teacher, wants her students to actively participate more in class. She has decided to use reinforcement theory to get the required results. Which of the following methods is she most likely to use?
A) She is going to call on students who never participate.
B) She is going to yell at students, telling them that they are not making good grades.
C) She is going to ask the students that always participate to allow the others to have a chance.
D) She is going to model what active participation should look like, at the beginning of class.
E) She is going to give students an extra mark each time that they contribute.
E) She is going to give students an extra mark each time that they contribute.
51) The concept of operant conditioning is a part of the broader concept of ________, which argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner.
A) equity theory
B) expectancy theory
C) cognitive behavioral therapy
D) behaviorism
E) humanism
D) behaviorism
52) What is the limitation of reinforcement theory in explaining changes in behavior?
A) It does not adequately describe the original behavior.
B) It lays too much emphasis on feelings and attitudes.
C) Most behavior is, in fact, environmentally caused.
D) It ignores the effect of rewards and punishments on behavior.
E) It does not recognize the effect of cognitive variables.
E) It does not recognize the effect of cognitive variables.
53) According to social learning theory, which of the following processes demonstrates whether an individual is capable of performing the modeled activities?
A) attentional process
B) retention process
C) motor reproduction process
D) reinforcement process
E) motivation process
C) motor reproduction process
54) George is trying to teach his two-year old son to gently caress their cat. George softly strokes the animal and every time his son does the same, he rewards him with kind words like “good job!” The child is very attentive during the process and claps his hands when his father praises him. However, as soon as George leaves, the boy lunges for the cat and grabs it by the tail. Which process of social-learning theory is failing?
A) attentional processes
B) justification processes
C) retention processes
D) motor reproduction processes
E) reinforcement processes
C) retention processes
55) In equity theory, individuals assess the ________.
A) cost-benefit ratio
B) efficiency-effectiveness trade-off
C) quantity-quality trade-off
D) outcome-input ratio
E) quality of outcome
D) outcome-input ratio
56) Karen graduated from college four years ago and has been working at Betaphy Inc. ever since. She has consistently received good performance evaluations for the quality of her work. She recently found out that her company hired a fresh college graduate with no experience at a salary higher than hers. Which of the following theories will Karen most likely use to evaluate this situation?
A) reinforcement
B) goal setting
C) equity
D) expectancy
E) operant conditioning
C) equity
57) According to the equity theory, there are four referent comparisons. The referent comparison known as other-inside refers to ________.
A) an employee’s experiences in a different position inside the employee’s current organization
B) an employee’s experiences in a different position outside the employee’s current organization
C) another individual or group of individuals inside the employee’s organization
D) an employee’s experiences in a similar position outside the employee’s current organization
E) another individual or group of individuals outside the employee’s organization
C) another individual or group of individuals inside the employee’s organization
58) Self-inside, one of the four referent comparisons in the equity theory, refers to ________.
A) an employee’s experiences in a different position inside the employee’s current organization
B) an employee’s experiences in a different position outside the employee’s current organization
C) another individual or group of individuals inside the employee’s organization
D) an employee’s experiences in a similar position outside the employee’s current organization
E) another individual or group of individuals outside the employee’s organization
A) an employee’s experiences in a different position inside the employee’s current organization
59) Other-outside is a referent comparison that refers to ________.
A) an employee’s experiences in a similar position outside the employee’s current organization
B) another individual or group of individuals inside the employee’s organization
C) an employee’s experiences in a different position inside the employee’s current organization
D) another individual or group of individuals outside the employee’s organization
E) an employee’s experiences in a different position outside the employee’s current organization
D) another individual or group of individuals outside the employee’s organization
60) Jim is a salaried employee whose job is to develop content for online web sites. He discovers that he is paid substantially more than his colleagues, even though their jobs and levels of performance are very similar. According to the equity theory, what impact is this discovery most likely to have on his behavior and performance?
A) He will reduce the amount of work that he does on a daily basis.
B) He will compare his earnings to those of another group of employees.
C) He will increase his productivity and/or the overall quality of his work.
D) He will seek a position within the company commensurate with his pay.
E) He will begin to look for a position outside of the company.
C) He will increase his productivity and/or the overall quality of his work.
Megan graduated from college three years ago and has been working at Sterba Inc. ever since. A conscientious employee, she has consistently received good performance evaluations. She recently found out that a younger colleague, who was just recruited to her team, is drawing a higher salary than she is for doing the same type of work.

61) Following this discovery, Megan starts coming to work late and her productivity begins to suffer. Which of the following is most similar to the scenario mentioned above?
A) Dawn starts coming to work early and stays late once she learns that the mid-term review is around the corner.
B) Greg believes he works harder than any of the other members in his department as they often leave the office before him.
C) Lisa starts working longer hours after learning that her co-workers earn less than she does for the same work.
D) Myrtle produces a higher number of units to compensate for the lower quality of her output.
E) Beth submits her resignation after she was passed over for promotion for the second time.

C) Lisa starts working longer hours after learning that her co-workers earn less than she does for the same work.
64) Jackie thinks that she is paid a lot less than other employees in her division and feels extremely resentful. She starts taking long breaks and generally wastes time. Her actions resulted from a perceived lack of ________ justice.
A) interactional
B) interpersonal
C) procedural
D) distributive
E) associative
D) distributive
65) Edith believes that the methods for determining salary hikes and bonuses in her company are extremely unfair. In this case, Edith perceives a lack of ________ justice.
A) interpersonal
B) distributive
C) associative
D) procedural
E) interactional
D) procedural
66) Which of the following types of justice relates most strongly to job satisfaction, employee trust, withdrawal from the organization, job performance, and citizenship behaviors?
A) associative justice
B) interactional justice
C) distributive justice
D) procedural justice
E) integrative justice
D) procedural justice
67) Why do people who perceive themselves as victims of interactional injustice often blame their immediate supervisor rather than the organization at large?
A) Interactional justice or injustice is intimately tied to the conveyer of the information.
B) Interactional injustice usually occurs during face-to-face encounters.
C) When people are not treated with respect they tend to retaliate against those closest at hand.
D) Interactional injustice is in the eyes of those who perceive they are disrespected.
E) Interactional injustice is most often the result of the impersonal policies of the organization.
A) Interactional justice or injustice is intimately tied to the conveyer of the information.
68) Which of the following theories discusses three relationships: effort-performance relationship, performance-reward relationship, and rewards-personal goals relationship?
A) goal-setting theory
B) self-efficacy theory
C) equity theory
D) expectancy theory
E) self-determination theory
D) expectancy theory
69) Logan is an employee who processes health insurance forms. Initially he was criticized by his supervisor for sloppy work, but thereafter he improved considerably. Now he consistently processes his forms without errors and even does more than his fair share of work. However, Logan’s supervisor has not responded to the extra effort he has put in, giving him no praise or monetary benefits. This leads Logan to believe that his supervisor is biased against him. According to the expectancy theory, in this situation, there is a problem in the ________ relationship.
A) rewards-personal goals
B) performance-awareness
C) performance-reward
D) performance-objectives
E) performance-achievement
C) performance-reward
72) Mark is an excellent technical writer. He has never missed a deadline and all his projects are of superior quality. He now wants to telecommute two days a week, so that he can spend more time with his family. He feels that he has proven his reliability. However, his boss is unable to comply with his request and gives him a substantial raise instead. According to the expectancy theory, Mark’s disappointment demonstrates a breakdown in the ________ relationship.
A) performance-reward
B) effort-performance
C) rewards-personal goals
D) effort-satisfaction
E) performance-achievement
C) rewards-personal goals
71) According to the expectancy theory, the performance-reward relationship is the degree to which ________.
A) the individual believes performing at a particular level will lead to desired outcomes
B) organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs
C) organizational rewards are perceived as attractive by the individual
D) the individual believes that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance
E) organization rewards correspond with the individual’s level of effort
A) the individual believes performing at a particular level will lead to desired outcomes