BUAD309 Ch. 16 MC

Manuel is a manager for a manufacturing company in which managers are expected to fully document all decisions, and it is important to provide detailed data to support any recommendations. Also, out-of-the-box thinking is dissuaded. Which characteristic of organizational culture describes this aspect of Manuel’s job?
A) low team orientation
B) high aggressiveness
C) low risk taking
D) low outcome orientation
E) high people orientation
C) low risk taking
Danny’s boss is apathetic to whether Danny works at home, at the office, or from his beach house. All he cares about is that the project is completed on time, on budget, and with exemplary quality. Which characteristic of organizational culture describes this aspect of Danny’s job?
A) low risk taking
B) high outcome orientation
C) high attention to detail
D) low aggressiveness
E) high stability
B) high outcome orientation
Which of the following characteristics of an organization’s culture indicates the degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on employees within the organization?
A) attention to detail
B) outcome orientation
C) team orientation
D) people orientation
E) stability
D) people orientation
‘Stability” is one of the seven primary characteristics that captures the essence of an organization’s culture. It indicates the degree to which ________.
A) employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks
B) management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve them
C) management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization
D) work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals
E) organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth
E) organizational activities emphasize maintaing the status quo in contrast to growth
The key characteristic of organizational culture that addresses the degree to which people are competitive rather than easygoing is termed ________.
A) assertiveness
B) team orientation
C) aversiveness
D) risk taking
E) aggressiveness
E) aggressiveness
Which of the following statements best describes the difference between organizational culture and job satisfaction?
A) Job satisfaction depends upon the level of “power distance” in the country but organizational culture does not.
B) Organizational culture is static, whereas job satisfaction is dynamic.
C) Job satisfaction is immeasurable, whereas organizational culture is measurable.
D) Organizational culture is descriptive, whereas job satisfaction is evaluative.
E) Job satisfaction depends on the structure of the organization but organizational culture does not.
D) organizational culture is descriptive, whereas job satisfaction is evaluative
) Porco Rosso, an aircraft manufacturer with a strong presence in the United States, is looking to expand its market overseas. The firm currently sells its aircraft to several airlines in the United Kingdom, but now wants to establish manufacturing units there as well in order to acquire a bigger share in the European market. Hence, it plans to merge with QueenAir, a British aircraft manufacturer. Which of the following, if true, would weaken the company’s decision to merge with QueenAir?
A) Merging with QueenAir would increase its profits considerably.
B) There is increasing economic uncertainty in its U.S. market.
C) The preferences of airline customers in Europe and the U.S. are similar.
D) There is a striking difference in the organizational cultures of the two firms.
E) A competitor in the U.S. market recently went out of business.
D) There is a striking difference in the organizational cultures of the two firms
Which of the following statements is true regarding an organization’s culture?
A) Organizational culture is evaluative rather than descriptive.
B) Large organizations rarely have subcultures.
C) A dominant culture expresses the core values shared by a majority of the organization’s members.
D) A strong culture reduces employee satisfaction and increases employee turnover.
E) Subcultures and dominant cultures do not share any common values.
C) A dominant culture expresses the core values shared by a majority of the organization’s members
Cultures that tend to develop in large organizations to reflect common problems or experiences faced by the members in the same department or location are often called ________.
A) micro-cultures
B) subcultures
C) divisional cultures
D) microcosms
E) countercultures
B) subcultures
Jean works for Fahrenheit Publishing which is a publisher of scientific journals. The company is dominated by low risk taking and high attention to detail. Jean’s department is committed to high team orientation and provides many team-building activities in which Jean and other department members work together and socialize. Which of the following statements best describes Jean’s department?
A) Jeans department is an example of a primary microcosm.
B) Jean’s department’s culture is stronger than the dominant culture in the organization.
C) Jean’s department has developed a subculture.
D) Jean’s department’s culture is undefined.
E) Jean’s department’s culture has low stability.
C) Jean’s department has developed a subculture
________ are indicators of a strong organizational culture.
A) High levels of dissension
B) High rates of employee turnover
C) Completely horizontal organizational charts
D) Narrowly defined roles
E) Widely shared values
E) Widely shared values
The primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization are known as ________.
A) foundational traits
B) core values
C) shared values
D) institutional traits
E) unique values
B) core values
Which of the following is most likely to result from a strong organizational culture?
A) low employee turnover
B) low employee satisfaction
C) low organizational commitment
D) high absenteeism
E) low behavioral control resulting from the climate within the organization
A) low employee turnover
A strong culture should reduce employee turnover, because it results in ________.
A) a highly centralized organization
B) narrow spans of control
C) cohesiveness and organizational commitment
D) a highly formalized organization
E) an outcome-oriented organization
C) cohesiveness and organizational commitment
A strong culture can act as a substitute for which of the following?
A) institutionalization
B) formalization
C) socialization
D) centralization
E) social support
B) formalization
A culture that expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization’s members is known as a(n) ________ culture.
A) dominant
B) primary
C) fundamental
D) unique
E) essential
A) dominant
Rogue Vogue Corp. is an apparel company. To keep up with the latest changes in the fashion industry, the company has to come up with innovative designs and follow strict timelines. The culture of the company values aggressiveness, innovation, and risk taking. The members of the organization accept these cultural values. They know exactly what is expected of them and these expectations go a long way in shaping their behavior. In addition to this, the culture of the marketing department is outcome oriented and the finance department emphasizes attention to detail.

17) The organizational culture of Rogue Vogue Corp. is an example of a(n) ________.
A) autocratic culture
B) subculture
C) highly formalized culture
D) reflective culture
E) dominant culture

E) dominant culture
Rogue Vogue Corp. is an apparel company. To keep up with the latest changes in the fashion industry, the company has to come up with innovative designs and follow strict timelines. The culture of the company values aggressiveness, innovation, and risk taking. The members of the organization accept these cultural values. They know exactly what is expected of them and these expectations go a long way in shaping their behavior. In addition to this, the culture of the marketing department is outcome oriented and the finance department emphasizes attention to detail.

Aggressiveness, innovation, and risk taking are called the ________ of the culture at the Rogue Vogue Corp.
A) foundational values
B) institutional traits
C) core values
D) significant traits
E) unique values

C) core values
Rogue Vogue Corp. is an apparel company. To keep up with the latest changes in the fashion industry, the company has to come up with innovative designs and follow strict timelines. The culture of the company values aggressiveness, innovation, and risk taking. The members of the organization accept these cultural values. They know exactly what is expected of them and these expectations go a long way in shaping their behavior. In addition to this, the culture of the marketing department is outcome oriented and the finance department emphasizes attention to detail.

In addition to the organizational culture, the finance department emphasizes attention to detail. In this example, attention to detail is a part of the ________ of the organization.
A) core values
B) significant traits
C) dominant culture
D) foundational values
E) subculture

E) subculture
Rogue Vogue Corp. is an apparel company. To keep up with the latest changes in the fashion industry, the company has to come up with innovative designs and follow strict timelines. The culture of the company values aggressiveness, innovation, and risk taking. The members of the organization accept these cultural values. They know exactly what is expected of them and these expectations go a long way in shaping their behavior. In addition to this, the culture of the marketing department is outcome oriented and the finance department emphasizes attention to detail.

) Based on the information in the example, we can say that Rogue Vogue ________.
A) is a highly decentralized organization
B) is a virtual organization
C) has a strong culture
D) is a boundaryless organization
E) is a matrix organization

C) has a strong culture
Which of the following statements is true regarding the functions of culture in an organization?
A) It hinders the generation of commitment to something larger than individual self-interest among employees.
B) It conveys a sense of identity for organization members.
C) It reduces the stability of the organizational system.
D) It reduces distinctions between one organization and others.
E) It does not affect employees’ attitudes and behavior.
B) It conveys a sense of identity for organization members
When formal authority and control systems are reduced, the ________ provided by a strong culture ensures that everyone is pointed in the same direction.
A) rules and regulations
B) shared meaning
C) rituals
D) socialization
E) rigid hierarchy
B) shared meaning
In ________ organizations, the lack of frequent face-to-face contact makes establishing a common set of norms very difficult.
A) highly formalized
B) boundaryless
C) virtual
D) matrix
E) highly centralized
C) virtual
Which of the following statements is true regarding the establishment of the organizational culture and its effects on the organization?
A) Today’s trend toward decentralized organizations makes it is easier to establish a strong culture.
B) In a virtual organization a strong culture can be established quickly and easily.
C) Employees organized in teams always show greater allegiance to the values of the organization as a whole than to their team and its values.
D) Culture acts as a control mechanism and guides the behavior of employees.
E) Cultures reduce the stability of the social system in an organization.
D) Culture as a control mechanism and guides the behavior of employees
________ refers to the shared perceptions organizational members have about their organization and work environment.
A) Organizational climate
B) Institutionalization
C) Microcosm
D) Groupthink
E) Organizational apprehension
A) organizational climate
Grace works for a pet store where everyone is committed to the happiness of the animals. Often employees, bosses, and hourly workers alike, come into the store “off the clock” and spend time training the animals. Everyone loves the store, the animals, and their jobs. This attitude of her co-workers inspires Grace to do her best. Based on this information, we can say that Grace is experiencing the effects of ________.
A) decentralization
B) organizational climate
C) high departmentalization
D) low formalization
E) high work specialization
B) organizational climate
A(n) ________ organization is an organization that takes on a life of its own, apart from its founders or members and is valued for itself and not for the goods or services it produces.
A) virtual
B) matrix
C) boundaryless
D) institutionalized
E) centralized
D) institutionalized
Culture is most likely to be a liability when ________.
A) the employees of the organization are highly skilled
B) the organization’s environment is dynamic
C) the organization’s management is highly efficient
D) the organization is highly centralized
E) the organization scores low on the degree of formalization
B) the organization’s environment is dynamic
Rainbow Corp. hires a new secretary, Polonova, who differs from the vast majority of the company’s employees in terms of her ethnicity. The company has a collectivist culture with a culturally diverse workforce and several policies to support the minorities. Yet after a few weeks, she quits the company. Which of the following, if true, helps explain why she quit?
A) Rainbow Corp. recently had a huge turnover and plans to expand its market.
B) All secretaries, regardless of their gender, are paid equal salaries at Rainbow Corp.
C) Polonova is gregarious and comfortable in changing contexts and ambiguous situations.
D) Polonova has a strong sense of personal ambition and independence.
E) Polonova is more likely to conform to others’ ideas and opinions rather than come up with her own.
D) Polonova has a strong sense of personal ambition and independence
The ultimate source of an organization’s culture is ________.
A) its top management
B) its environment
C) the country in which the organization operates
D) its founders
E) the sociocultural backgrounds of its employees
D) its founders
The ________ process helps candidates learn about the organization, and if employees perceive a conflict between their values and those of the organization, they can remove themselves from the applicant pool.
A) orientation
B) training
C) performance evaluation
D) selection
E) institutionalization
D) selection
Stacy’s, a chain of discount stores in Washington, employs thousands of people and pays most of them at the minimum wage rate. Following a federally mandated increase of the minimum wage rate, Stacy’s operating costs increased considerably. Yet, the chain’s profits increased markedly. Which of the following, if true, helps explain this situation?
A) Stacy’s plans to expand its market by opening stores in the states of Oregon, Idaho and Nevada.
B) Recently, two new competitors entered the market.
C) Stacy’s operating costs, other than wages, increased substantially after the increase in the minimum wage rate went into effect.
D) Over half of Stacy’s operating costs consist of payroll expenditures; yet only a small percentage of those expenditures go to pay management salaries.
E) Stacy’s customer base is made up primarily of people who earn a minimum wage or who depend on the earnings of others who earn a minimum wage.
E) Stacy’s customer base is made up primarily of people who earn a minimum wage or who depend on the earnings of others who earn a minimum wage
The selection process helps sustain the organization’s culture by ________.
A) establishing and enforcing norms
B) hiring candidates who fit well within the organization
C) socializing the new employees
D) developing performance evaluation criteria
E) rewarding conformity
B) hiring candidates who fit well within the organization
Top management has a major impact on the organization’s culture by ________.
A) establishing norms that filter down through the organization
B) ensuring a proper match of personal and organizational values
C) socializing new applicants in the pre-hiring phase
D) providing a framework for metamorphosis of new hires
E) properly rewarding employees’ initiatives
A) establishing norms that filter down through the organization
________ is a process that helps new employees adapt to the prevailing organizational culture.
A) Satisficing
B) Reciprocal interdependence
C) Socialization
D) Formalization
E) Social loafing
C) socialization
The process of socialization consists of three stages. Which of the following is one of these three stages?
A) metamorphosis
B) preencounter
C) evaluation
D) post-arrival
E) post-encounter
A) metamorphosis
Identify the correct order of stages in the socialization process.
A) encounter, metamorphosis, post-encounter
B) prearrival, arrival, evaluation
C) prearrival, arrival, post-arrival
D) prearrival, encounter, metamorphosis
E) metamorphosis, preencounter, arrival
D) prearrival, encounter, metamorphosis
The ________ stage of the socialization process explicitly recognizes that each individual the organization comes across during the selection process has a set of values, attitudes, and expectations about both the work to be done and the organization.
A) post-encounter
B) prearrival
C) metamorphosis
D) preencounter
E) post-arrival
B) prearrival
During the ________ stage, a new employee compares her expectations with the realities in the organization.
A) prearrival
B) encounter
C) metamorphosis
D) post-arrival
E) post-encounter
B) encounter
If there is a basic conflict between the individual’s expectations and the reality of working in an organization, the employee is most likely to be disillusioned and quit during the ________ stage of socialization.
A) prearrival
B) post-arrival
C) encounter
D) metamorphosis
E) post-encounter
C) encounter
Higgins has recently joined a new law firm expecting to participate in exciting environmental law cases and cutting edge research. After one month at the firm, he still hasn’t been assigned a case and spends most of his time filing standardized appeals for title disputes with insurance companies. In which stage of the socialization process is Higgins?
A) prearrival
B) encounter
C) metamorphosis
D) post-encounter
E) post-arrival
B) encounter
During the socialization process, to work out any problems discovered during the encounter stage, the new member changes or goes through the ________ stage.
A) post-arrival
B) metamorphosis
C) post-encounter
D) analysis
E) evaluation
B) metamorphosis
Which of the following statements is true regarding random socialization?
A) Random socialization tries to strip away certain characteristics of the recruit.
B) Random socialization is carried out per a fixed time schedule.
C) In random socialization, new employees are left on their own to figure things out.
D) Random socialization involves socializing the newcomers in groups.
E) Specific orientation and classroom training programs are examples of random socialization.
C) In random socialization, new employees are left on their own to figure things out
Which of the following types of socialization involves putting the new employee directly into the job, with little or no special attention?
A) investiture socialization
B) serial socialization
C) collective socialization
D) fixed socialization
E) informal socialization
E) informal socialization
________ socialization assumes that the newcomer’s qualities and qualifications are the necessary ingredients for job success, so these qualities and qualifications are confirmed and supported.
A) Variable
B) Collective
C) Serial
D) Investiture
E) Formal
D) Investiture
Which of the following statements is true about formal socialization?
A) Formal socialization involves socializing the new members individually.
B) Specific orientation and training programs are examples of formal socialization.
C) Apprenticeship and mentoring programs are examples of formal socialization.
D) Formal socialization lacks a fixed time schedule.
E) In formal socialization, new employees are left on their own to figure things out.
B) specific orientation and training programs are examples of formal socialization
________ socialization tries to strip away certain characteristics of the recruit.
A) Random
B) Fixed
C) Collective
D) Divestiture
E) Formal
Divestiture
Apprenticeship is an example of ________ socialization.
A) divestiture
B) variable
C) serial
D) informal
E) investiture
C) serial
By the end of the ________ stage of socialization, the new members internalize and accept the norms of the organization and their work group, are confident in their competence, and feel trusted and valued by their peers.
A) encounter
B) post-arrival
C) establishment
D) metamorphosis
E) adaptation
D) metamorphosis
You are new to an organization and do not really know what to expect about the socialization process. You recently received your MBA and have an undergraduate degree in computer science. Your new firm is a software development company with an emphasis in the healthcare industry. Your hiring process included campus interviews, a daylong trip for an interview at the company, an offer phone call and letter, and some promotional material sent via the mail. When you arrive for your first day at work, you spend half a day in an orientation session that is conducted by the human resources department, where you complete paperwork and receive a company handbook. Then you spend the rest of the day with your supervisor, who gives you a tour, introduces you to your co-workers, and explains your first project. After that, you begin working and getting to know the others in the company. You find that in most respects, your experience fits your expectations, but in some ways you are surprised by realities that you hadn’t expected. None of these surprises is too difficult to accept, so you eventually begin to feel at home and happy with your new job.

50) The information that you receive during the interviewing and hiring process is a part of the ________ stage of employee socialization.
A) preencounter
B) prearrival
C) encounter
D) metamorphosis
E) post-encounter

B) prearrival
You are new to an organization and do not really know what to expect about the socialization process. You recently received your MBA and have an undergraduate degree in computer science. Your new firm is a software development company with an emphasis in the healthcare industry. Your hiring process included campus interviews, a daylong trip for an interview at the company, an offer phone call and letter, and some promotional material sent via the mail. When you arrive for your first day at work, you spend half a day in an orientation session that is conducted by the human resources department, where you complete paperwork and receive a company handbook. Then you spend the rest of the day with your supervisor, who gives you a tour, introduces you to your co-workers, and explains your first project. After that, you begin working and getting to know the others in the company. You find that in most respects, your experience fits your expectations, but in some ways you are surprised by realities that you hadn’t expected. None of these surprises is too difficult to accept, so you eventually begin to feel at home and happy with your new job.

Your first day at work is a part of the ________ stage of socialization.
A) orientation
B) prearrival
C) encounter
D) metamorphosis
E) post-encounter

C) encounter
When you begin to notice things that are not as you expected, you are in the ________ stage of socialization.
A) orientation
B) prearrival
C) encounter
D) metamorphosis
E) post-arrival
C) encounter
Which of the following steps could your supervisor take to best help you develop a commitment to your new company?
A) encourage you to work independently at first to learn the ropes
B) explain the rules and policies of the organization to you
C) discourage you from putting too much emphasis on your perception of the organization
D) encourage you to look carefully at your own assumptions, which may be biased
E) encourage you to develop friendship ties within the organization
E) encourage you to develop friendship ties within the organization
When you start to accept the differences between your expectations and the reality of the organization, you move into the ________ stage of socialization.
A) prearrival
B) post-arrival
C) acceptance
D) metamorphosis
E) post-encounter
D) metamorphosis
Your supervisor provides you a mentor to help you with your work and guide you. This shows that your supervisor is using a(n) ________ socialization technique.
A) divestiture
B) random
C) informal
D) serial
E) variable
D) serial
________ typically contain narratives about the organization’s founders, rule breaking, or reactions to past mistakes.
A) Stories
B) Material symbols
C) Rituals
D) Organizational charts
E) Corporate chants
A) stories
Bruce is new at Wayne Corp., but after a week he already knows that the founder of the corporation started the business in his garage with only $4,000 and one client. This information was most likely transmitted to Bruce by way of ________.
A) stories
B) material symbols
C) rituals
D) organizational charts
E) corporate chants
A) stories
Company chants are examples of ________.
A) rituals
B) material symbols
C) stories
D) company policies
E) business strategies
A) rituals
Company chants are used to ________.
A) inform employees about changes in rules and policies
B) transmit company culture to employees
C) inform employees about latest technologies
D) communicate company strategies to the employees
E) update employees regarding performance of the company
B) transmit company culture to employees
Which of the following can act as a common denominator to unite members of a given culture or subculture?
A) mechanistic organizational structure
B) 360-degree appraisals
C) jargons and acronyms that are specific to the organization
D) bureaucratic organizational structure
E) narrow span of control
C) jargons and acronyms that are specific to the organization
Alcoa headquarters has few individual offices, even for senior executives. The space is essentially made up of cubicles, common areas, and meeting rooms. This informality conveys to employees that Alcoa values ________.
A) autocracy
B) competitiveness
C) rigidity
D) equality
E) formalization
D) equality
Ask Socrates Inc. is a computer software company that employs highly intelligent, but somewhat unusual people. Every Friday, free lollipops, toys, or other treats are given out to encourage employees to remember how creative they were when they were children. All the new members of the organization are told about the founders who were three young people who “got lucky” and sold a video game that they invented. The employees are allowed to dress informally and can set their own working hours.

62) Which of the following is most likely to be used by Ask Socrates Inc. to inform its new employees about its founders?
A) stories
B) material symbols
C) organizational charts
D) rituals
E) corporate chants

A) stories
The regular distribution of lollipops, toys, or treats every Friday is an example of a ________ that helps reinforce AskSocrates’ culture.
A) dominant mechanism
B) ritual
C) primary process
D) protective mechanism
E) fundamental procedure
B) ritual
AskSocrates Inc. employees are allowed to dress informally. This is an example of a ________ through which organizational culture is transmitted.
A) primary procedure
B) ritual
C) material symbol
D) symbolic act
E) fundamental mechanism
C) material symbol