Leadership Perspectives/Theories (6)
Trait theories
Behavioral theories
Contingency theories
Leader-Member Exchange theory
Charismatic Leadership
Transformational Leadership
3 Other Leadership Issues
Challenges – Substitutes Theory
The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of vision or goals
leadership focus
More focused on visions for future, challenging status quo, inspiring org. members
a leader is considered a …
Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members
management focus
More focused on efficiency, implementation, managing day-to-day activities
charasmatic theories refer to
uppper level
Measurement of leadership effectiveness
botton line–> stock price, employee satisfaction
who do you refer to to measure effectivness
1. subordinates
2. objective indictors
Traits Theories of Leadership
Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from non-leaders.
3 Leadership Traits from Big 5:
Openness to Experience
other traits correlated with good leadership (2)
-Emotional Intelligence (empathy)
Traits that do predict leadership dont explain
do not explain substantial amounts of variance
traits theories are better predictors of
appearance of leadership (leader emergence) than distinguishing b/t effective and ineffective leaders
Behavioral Theories of Leadership
Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non-leaders
Differences between trait and behavioral theories of leadership:
Trait theory: leadership is inherent

Behavioral theory: leadership is a skill set and can be taught to anyone

Important Behavioral Studies
ohio and michigan
2 dimensions of leadership for ohio
Initiating structure
2 dimensions of leadership for michigan
Initiating structure/production-orientation effects
Consideration/employee-orientation effects
attention to personal component–> morale, well being
initiation structure=
production oriented
employee oriented
universal perspectives
behavioral and trait theories- does take situation into consideration
Contingency Theories
While trait and behavior theories do help us understand leadership, an important component is missing: the leader’s environment or situation (context)
3 key contingency theories
1. Fiedler’s Model
2. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory
3. Path-Goal Theory
contingency theories similar how
focus on leader and context
contingency theories differ how
in terms of what variables about leader/context they consider
Fiedler Model
Effective group performance depends on the proper match between leadership style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control (situational control)
how is leadership assessed in fiedler model
assessed by LPC scale and Assumes that leadership style (based on orientation revealed in LPC questionnaire) is fixed
fiedler model considers what 3 factors
leader member relations
task structure
position power
leader member relations
degree of confidence and trust in the leader
task structure
degree of structure in job assignments
position power
leader’s ability to hire, fire, and reward
Effective leadership under fiedler model requires what
match between leadership style and situational control
must have a leader who fits the situation or change the situation to fit the leader’s style
Fiedler’s Model: The Leader
Leader’s Style is Fixed & Can be Measured by the Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire
Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire
The way in which a leader evaluates a co-worker that they least enjoyed working with indicates whether the leader is task- or relationship-oriented
low LPC
task oriented
high LPC
relationship oriented
Graphic Representation of Fiedler’s Model
leadership performance based on amount of control
favorable control- what type of leader best?
task oriented
moderate control- leadership besy?
relationship oriented
unfavorable control-leadership best?
task orienteed
Positives fiedlers model
Considerable evidence supports the model, especially if the original eight situations are grouped into three (high, moderate and low control)
Problems fiedler model (3)
1. The logic behind the LPC scale is not well understood
2. LPC scores are not stable
3. Contingency variables are complex and difficult for practitioners to assess
Situational Leadership Theory
A model that focuses on follower “readiness”
“Readiness” is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task
leadership behavior for: unable and unwilling
give clear and specific directions
leadership behavior for: unable and willing
display high task orientation and relationship orientation
leadership behavior for: able and unwilling
use a supportive and participatory style
leadership behavior for: able and willing
diesnt need to do much
readiness is considered
contingency vairbale
House’s Path-Goal Theory
Leaders provide followers with information, support, and resources to help them achieve their goals by helping clarity path to workers goals
house path goal builds on what
ohio state theory
4 leadership styles
focuses on the work to be done
focuses on the well-being of the worker
consults with employees in decision making
sets challenging goals
path goal contingency variables
environmental and subordinate
environmental contingency (3)
task structure
formal authority
work group
subordinate contingency factors (3)
locus of control
perceived ability
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
in groups and outgroups
ingroups (3)
– In the leader’s inner circle of communication
-Receive more time and attention from leader
-Receive greater responsibility and rewards
outgroups (3)
-Managed by formal rules and policies
-Receive less of leader’s attention/fewer exchanges
-More likely to retaliate against organization
What determines in vs. out group placement? (2)
-demographic and deep level diversity characteristics
-employee competence
Employees with high LMX (3)
-Higher performance
-Higher OCB
-Higher satisfaction with supervisor
Charismatic Leadership
Followers attribute heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when certain behavior is observed
4 characteristics of charismatic leadership
1. vision
2. extraordinary behavior
3. sensitivity to follower needs
4. personal risk
4 steps in how charismatic leaders influence others
1. articulate vision
2. create a vision statement
3. create a new set of values consistent with vision
4. demonstrate the vision by example
Charismatic leadership has found to be correlated with what 2 things
1. high performance and satisfaction among followers
2. Greater organizational profitability
when is charismatic leadership most effective (3)
1. During crisis situations
2. In times of high stress and uncertainty
3. At higher levels in the organization
what is the dark side of charismatic leadership
unethical or legal behavior because leaders into it too much for themselves
Transactional leaders
guide followers to goal accomplishment by clarifying role and task requirements

*more managerial, day to day

Transformational leaders
Inspire followers to transcend their self-interests for the good of the organization; capable of having profound and extraordinary effect on followers
4 aspects of transactional
1. Contingent Reward
2. Management by Exception (active)
3. Management by Exception (passive)
4. Laissez-Faire
Management by Exception (active)
monitor and correct before deviation
Management by Exception (passive)
only monitor outcome, move in after the fact
4 aspects of transformational leadership
1. Idealized Influence
2. Inspirational Motivation
3. Intellectual Stimulation
4. Individualized Consideration
Idealized influence
Provides vision, instills pride in organization, gains follower respect and trust
Inspirational Motivation
Communicates high expectations for performance and provides meaning and challenge
Intellectual Stimulation
Promotes intelligence, rationality, careful problem solving with an emphasis on creativity and innovation
Individualized Consideration
Mentor, coach
Full Range of Leadership Model combines what
Combines transactional and transformational approaches
Full Range of Leadership Model styles
Leadership styles listed from passive to very active
Leadership styles listed from passive to very active
1. laissez-faire
2. management by exception
3. contingent reward
4. individualized consideration
5. intellectual consideration
6. intellectual stimulation
7. inpirational motivation
8. idealized influence
The ineffective styles are mostly
Most effective form of leadership involves
influencing followers to perform above expectation and transcend their self-interest for sake of organization
Transformational Leadership effectivness (4)
1. Higher satisfaction
2. Higher effort and individual performance
3. Lower turnover and absenteeism
4. Higher organizational-level performance
psychological state that exists when one agrees to make self vulnerable to another because one has positive expectations about how things are going to turn out
primary attribute
associated with leadership
transformational training
can train people to be more of a transformational leader
3 characteristics of trustworthiness
individual difference variable of trust
propensity of trust
having trust leads to
1. risk taking
2. information sharing
3. group effectiveness
4. productivity
Trust Propensity
how likely a particular employee is to trust a leade
how do people trust more (2)
1. time
2. more competent people
Leaders who break the psychological contract with workers, find employees are … (4)
1. less satisfied and committed
2. higher turnover
3. lower OCB
4. lower performance
2 functions of mentoring relationship
career functions (5)
1. lobbying to give challenging/visible assignments
2. coaching
3. exposure to influential individuals
4. sponsoring subord. for advances/promos
5. act as sounding board
psychosocial functions (4)
1. counseling to boost self confidence
2. share personal experience
3. friendship and acceptance
4. be role model
Substitutes for Leadership
Aspects of the work setting and the people involved that can reduce the need for a leader’s personal involvement
3 Possible leadership substitutes
1. subordinate characteristics
2. task characteristics
3. organizational characteristics
Subordinate characteristics
professionalism, training/experience
Task characteristics
highly structured, automatic feedback
Organizational characteristics
group cohesiveness, explicit goals, rules and procedures
conductor video: importance of contingency view
1. no 1 correct style of leadership
2. all work well in some situations
-ex: muti
although initiated alot of structure, lacks consideration and therefore asked to resign because less consideration leads to less satisfaction even though structure lead to higher performance
transactional conductor
directive, less room for creativity
conductor video: path goal
some leadership styles (directive) are ineffective due to situational context aka expertise ability of subordinates
conductor video: leader job
set stage and enable other to perform well, allow for development/creativity
conductor video: bernstien
“doing without doing” calm and relaxed — exercises control in a subtle way