BSNS 105

Explain, using examples, the three different categories of organisation ownership.
1. Private – individuals (eg mum and dad businesses such as Poppas Pizza
2. Public – (Government) eg Hospitals. Companies that are run by the government in this case not for profit
3. Community/ third sector (Trusts) Pirates football club. Of benefit to the community – not for profit
List, giving examples, the six dimensions of best practice in organisation management.
1. Leadership – Nelson mandela leading the fight against segregation
2. People management – ability to treat people right, gain understanding and trust
3. Customer focus – looking at relationships with customers
4. Quality management – Process control, process improvement, customer centric
5. Innovation – innovation in products and services, management systems etc
6. Knowledge management – As a manager acquiring new and existing knowledge from researching etc.
• List the three types of management skills required in the workplace. Explain which skill
needs to be emphasised at each level of management.
1. Technical skills – Bottom level (employees) the ability to complete the given task or job at hand
2. Human Skills – Middle management – The ability to work well with employees and promote good work ethics and be able to increase motivation from a managing role – able to relate to all emplyees on a personal basis
3. Conceptual skills – Top Level management – the ability to see the ‘big picture’ and visualize the future of a company. Also looks at the relationship between the different aspects of the firm.
• Explain the difference between entrepreneurship, intrapreneurship and social
entrepreneurship.
Entrepreneurship is when someone initiates and develops a new idea or innovation and transforms this into a business.
Intrapreneurship is the process of finding a need for innovation within a business and promoting it within a business
Social entrepreneurship is a leader who is committed to both positive business change and social change
• Define the terms ‘sole proprietorship’ and ‘partnership’ and ‘company’.
Sole Proprietorship is a sole owner of a company – has unlimited liability
Partnership is the joint ownership in a company relative to an agreement – unlimited liability
Company is the ownership of a company through shares, company is its own entity and there is limited liability.
Explain a ‘systems approach’ to thinking about an organization.
Looking at an organization as a set of interrelated parts that fuction as a whole to achieve a common purpose. Can be an open system (how it reacts to external environment) and can have subsystems (how parts depends on each other for functioning)
List, giving examples, the six dimensions of the general environment.
1. Technological – how technology can help a business
2. Legal – Political – the legal issues involved around conducting business etc
3. Economic – the economics around the business eg supply v demand
4. Socio-cultural – perhaps the cultural appeals of the business (maybe too insensitive etc)
5. International – is the business going international?
6. Natural – how the natural elements influence a business
• List, giving examples for your local supermarket, the four dimensions of the task
environment.
1. Customers – The shoppers themselves
2. Competitors – other supermarket chains
3. Suppliers – the Suppliers of the food they sell (eg apple farms)
4. Labour market – often students looking for part time work
• Define what is meant by the term ‘corporate social responsibility’.
The responsibility of an organizations management to make decisions and take actions that will enhance the welfare and interests of society as well as the organisation
Explain, giving examples, the difference between a shareholder and a stakeholder.
Shareholder – someone that owns and interest in the company’s performance via shares and can be paid dividends from profit etc.
Stakeholder – someone that has a stake in the companies performance not in the form of ownership but rather affected by the company. for example, a supplier to a supermarket is a stakeholder of the supermarkets ability to keep buying their products.
• List, giving examples, the three output areas associated with sustainable organisational
practice.
Environmental Footprint output: – sustainable resource use (reduce waste, renewable) – energy use – pollution

Social output – impact on the communities in which they operate eg customers/ employees – impact on the communities they connect to in some way (suppliers)

Economic/ financial output
– sustainable & viable business (profit, funding)

List, giving examples, the four approaches for undertaking ethical decision making
discussed in the text.
Utilitarian – greatest good for greatest number
2. Individualism – promote individuals best long term interests for the greater good
3. Moral Rights – fundamental rights and liberties
4. Justice – Standards of equity, fairness & impartiality
• Define, giving an example, what is meant by the term ‘ethical dilemma’.
A situation that arises when all alternative choices are deemed undesirable because of a potentially negative ethical consequence, making it difficult to distinguish right from wrong.
Nurse has patient wanting to be taken off life support
• Explain the purpose of the three levels of strategy
1. Corporate – Visions ideas etc
2. Business – how will we achieve these ideas
3. Functional – the actual implementation of these methods supplied by the business level.
• List, using examples, Porter’s three competitive strategies.
1. Differentiation – try to differentiate the product from competitors in order to make it more appealing
2. Focus – focus on a particular Target audience in order to try and gain a greater portion of that market share
3. Cost leadership – managing costs in a better way than competitors in order to be more profitable
• Define, using an example, the concept of ‘core competence.
Core competence is the concept of what makes the company what it is. Meaning what makes this company stand out compared to competitors. For Cirque Du Soleil is was the pure magnificence of shows.
Differentiate between the terms ‘goal’, ‘plan’, and ‘planning’.
Goal – the core objective of the firm to hope to reach given a set time period – end state
Plan – how the firm is going to reach the goal
Planning – the process of developing the plan to reach the intended goal
• List the five characteristics of effective goals.
1. Specific & Measurable – a goal must be able to be measured
2. Cover key result areas: KPIs key performance indicators
3. Challenging but realistic
4. Defined period
5. Linked to rewards
• Differentiate between the terms ‘strategic goal’, ‘tactical goal’ and ‘operational goal’.
Strategic goal – Corporate level – broad statements, where, future, whole organisation
Tactical goal – Business level – outcomes for divisions and departments
Operational goal – Functional level- a goal around how exactly the goal is going to be achieved given the production capacity etc
List, giving examples, the elements of a bureaucratic organisation
Lots of rules, centralized authority, mechanistic structure, clear hierarchy
List, giving examples, the major differences between programmed and non-programmed
decisions.
Programmed decision – a decision that a company makes on a regular basis and has a regular response for.
Non-programmed decision – a decision that is unique that is made in response to a situationed that is largely undefined that has important consequences for the firm
Using the example of making a decision about running a work-related social function, list
the six steps in the managerial decision making process, as indicated in the text.
1. Recognition of the need
2. Diagnosis and analysis
3. Development of alternatives
4. Selection of best alternative
5. Implementation
6. Evaluation Feedback
Using the example of making a decision about running a work-related social function,
define the terms ‘certainty’, ‘uncertainty’, ‘risk’, and ‘ambiguity’.
Certainty – having enough information and clearly defined goals
2. Uncertainty – Not having enough information
3. Risk – not knowing the outcome
4. Ambiguity – not having clearly defined goals
List, using examples, the various decision-making models as described in the text.
Classical – certainty of goals, strive for information, clear link to performance evaluation,
Administrative – How decisions usually are made, non-programmed decisions, uncertainty and ambiuguity
Political – managers trying to achieve different goals must work together
List, using an examples, the characteristics of the classical decision making model.
‘A decision-making model based on the assumption that managers should make logical decisions that will be in the organisation’s best economic interests
• List, using examples, the assumptions of the classical decision-making model.
1. Accomplish goals – goals known and agreed upon
2. Strive for certainty – gather complete information / alternative and results calculated
3. Criteria for evaluating alternatives are known
4. Decision maker is rational and uses logic
• What are the ways to stimulate rigorous debate when using a group decision-making
strategy?
1. Provide a devil’s advocate
2. Split the group into two and give each one side of the argument
3. Have a diverse group in terms of sex, ethnicity and cultural backgrounds
• Identify and explain the three characteristics of ‘authority’.
1. Power vested in the position not the person
2. Top downward
3. Must be accepted by subordinates
List, giving examples, the factors that shape an organisation’s structure.
1. Goal setting techniques
2. Sector – Broad environment
3. Vision of company
4. Leadership of company
5. Company Culture
Describe the relationships between authority, responsibility and delegation.
Delegating responsibility and authority to others who then become responsible to us for their results while we remain accountable to our boss for what our subordinates do. Authority travels downwards from CEO while responsibility travels upwards from employees. Delegation is the transfer of responsibility and authority to those below while remaining answerable to the boss.
Explain how a team is different from a group.
– Workgroups have a strong individual focus whereas teams have a strong collective focus, team concerns are much more focused on the outcomes of the overall unit rather than an individual’s accomplishments. Purpose, goals and approach to work is shaped by team leader whereas work group is shaped by manager.
Define the terms ‘vertical team’, ‘horizontal team’, ‘task force’, and ‘virtual team’.
1. Vertical team = formal team, between managers and employees
2. Horizontal team = long lasting, created to deal with tasks that appear regularly, members from the same hierarchal standpoint.
3. Self-directed teams = consisting of 5 – 20 multi skilled workers who rotate jobs to produce an entire product or service – often supervised by an elected member.
4. Virtual team = a team that uses computer technology so that geographically distant members can collaborate on important decisions and reach common goals.
• List, giving examples, five visible artifacts of an organisation’s culture.
1. Dress Code – what people are wearing orchestrates the mood of the firm.
2. Office layout – layout can be informative of how the organization wants to be view as.
3. Rituals and ceremonies – new employee welcomes, annual corporate conferences
4. Symbols and slogans – ways of summarizing organisations standpoints and beliefs for all to see
5. Stories – narratives based on true events such as stories success of CEOs and founders.
• Identify and define the four types of corporate cultures as they relate to the strategic
focus of the firm, and the needs of the general environment.
1. Achievement – (external / stability)
2. Adaptability (External / flexible)
3. Involvement (internal / flexible)
4. Consistentcy (internal / stability)
• List, giving examples, five types of questions that are inappropriate or illegal to ask in an
interview context.
1. Questions about Gender
2. Questions about Age
3. Questions about Religion
4. Questions about Marital status
5. Questions about Political standpoint
• List, giving examples, four training methods used in organisations.
1. Induction
2. Coaching
3. On Site Training
4. Mentoring
• List the differences between the ‘new social contract’ and the ‘old social contract’
perspectives for both employers and employees.
1. New Social Contract – Employees can leave when they want, more well taken care of? Mc Gregors X v Y
2. Old Social Contract – job for life? Less changing of jobs?
• List, giving examples, three ‘primary’ and three ‘secondary’ dimensions of diversity.
Primary
1. Age – Older more experienced give no respect to younger?
2. Ethnicity – different ethnicities can be treated differently
3. Sexual orientation – for some people being gay might mean they treat you differently
4. Race
5. Physical ability
6. Gender
Secondary
1. Religious beliefs – some people might treat you differently if you religious views differ
2. Income – some people might believe that income is a way of measuring a persons worth etc
3. Education – where you got your education.
4. Marital Status
5. Military Experience
6. Geographic Location
• Explain the difference between “ethnocentrism”, “monoculture”, “ethnorelativism”, and
“pluralism”.
Ethnocentrism – is individual culture is better than others
Monoculture – Is one way of doing things – related to glass ceiling effect which is when minorities and women have an invisible barrier stopping them from ever getting to management positions.
Ethnorelativism – Is when all the different ethnicities are treated equally.
Pluralism – Is when there are several subcultures within an organization.
• List three assumptions associated with McGregor’s Theory Y and three assumptions
associated with McGregor’s Theory X.
McGregor’s Theory Y
1. Employees have great ambition
2. Enjoy the work
3. Self Motivated
McGregor’s Theory X
1. Closely supervised
2. Inherently lazy
3. Clear Hierarchy is needed
• List, giving examples, the four components of emotional intelligence.
1. Self-awareness – how accurately you can assess your emotions
2. Self Management – ability to control emotions
3. Social Awareness – organsiation awareness – level of empathy in the workplace
4. Relationship awareness – developing others – serving as an inspirational leader and catalyst for change.
• Describe the different components of attitude using an example.
When someone thinks about implementing a new business plan this is cognition (thoughts). When he is happy or excited about the idea this is affect (feelings) and when he decides what to do this is behaviour (how he is going to behave)
• List, giving examples, the ‘Big Five’ personality traits.
1. Extroversion – like to interact with others
2. Agreeableness – Cooperative, sympathetic
3. Conscientiousness – being thorough, careful or diligent
4. Emotional stability – must be rational not driven to experience unpleasant emotions
5. Openness to experience – active imagination, intellectual curiosity
• List, giving examples, three examples of motivating factors and three examples of
hygiene factors according to Herzberg’s two-factor theory.
Motivating
1. Challenging work
2. Recognition
3. Responsibility
Hygiene
1. Company policies
2. Pay
3. Work environment
• Define, using examples, the terms ‘goal specificity’, ‘goal difficulty’, and ‘goal acceptance’.
1. Goal Specificity: clarity and precision of a goal (time etc)
2. Goal Difficulty: Extent to which a goal is challenging
3. Goal Acceptance: is the degree to which employees accept a goal
• List, using examples, four available options for motivating through job design.
1. Job simplification – job to improve efficiency
2. Job rotation – aims to motivate worker by moving from one job to next
3. Job enlargement – giving a worker several jobs to combine into one aim to stimulate them by providing greater cahlenge
4. Job enrichment – aims to motivate workers by adding responsibility by recoginition and proving opportunities for growth
• List, using examples, the two types of personal power and three types of positional
power?
Personal Power
1. Expert power – special knowledge/skill
2. Referent power – charismatic, personality
Positional power:
1. Legitimate power – formal position authority
2. Coercive power – authority to punish
3. Reward power – authority to give people rewards
• Explain, using examples, the difference between the terms ‘management’, and
‘leadership’.
Management must plan, organize and coordinate while the leader’s job is to inspire and motivate
List, using examples, the five categories of follower style that can exist inside an
organisation
1. Effective (active and critical)
2. Alienated (passive and critical)
3. Pragmatic survivor (avoids responsibility
4. Passive (passive, uncritical)
5. Conformist (active uncritical)
• List, using examples, two types of upward organization communication, two types of
downward organization communication and two types of horizontal organization
communication.
written, oral (formal informal) written can be such things as suggestion boxes or surveys while oral being less formal can be perhaps talking to manager directly. Downward. formal informal. oral. written. oral being less formal perhaps a reprimanding. written being formal written warning. horizontal – formal and informal. written oral. oral being two managers talking about a proposed business idea for marketing a new product, while written could be a formal request to another manager requiring his input into a new business idea
• List, using examples, four individual level barriers to communication.
1. Semantics – such as when words have double meaning.
2. Inter-personal – skills relating to communicating with others in the organization
3. Channel selection – the means through which communication is passed. Channel richness, channel capacity.
4. Consistency of cues – rewarding good work and reprimanding bad work etc
• List, using examples, four barriers to organisational communication.
1. Organization Culture
2. Organizational Structure
3. Status and power
4. Departments and divisions
• List, using examples, the elements of the communication process.
1. Sender:
– Encode = way in which the message is written eg text
– Message = the actual information to be sent.
– Channel = the means through which the message is conveyed

2. Reciever
– Decode = way in which message is recieved (reading the text)
– Feedback = way in which the message way interpreted (a reply text)

• List, using examples, three general approaches of scientific management.
1. Developed standard method for performing each job
2. Selected workers with appropriate abilities for each job
3. Trained workers in standard method
4. Supported workers by planning their work and eliminating interruptions
5. Provided wage incentives to workers for increased output
scientific management.
• List, using examples, the four most common facility layouts used for the actual
production of a good or service.
1. Cellular layout : grouped into different cells able to complete all aspects of production based on type eg vegetable and meat section of supermarket
2. Product layout: layout is in order of production eg a car assembly line
3. Fixed layout: machine or product is in fixed position and requires inputs to move towards it
4. Process layout: Groups workers or departments based on similar functions, have specialized equipment
• Explain, using examples, the basic difference between a manufacturing organisation and
a service organisation?
Manufacturing organization is one which prdouces a good to be sold such as car manufacturers, whereas a service organization is one that provides a service such as a physiotherapists.
• Select one “Spotlight on Practice” session from the BSNS 105 lectures:
i. State what topic was discussed in this session; and
ii. State what you found the most interesting about this session; and
iii. iii. State what you learnt from this session.
CEO of upstart talking about entrepreneurship
The sideways moving stock price of Microsoft not following the market but being rather stagnant.
That big companies like Microsoft are struggling for the innovation to make them bigger and better than they already are.
• Select one “Spotlight on Research” session from the BSNS 105 lectures:
i. State what topic was discussed in this session; and
ii. State what you found the most interesting about this session; and
iii. State what you learnt from this session.
Ethics and entrepreneurship
Ponzi Scheme
How the Ponzi scheme works by later incoming investor funds paying off earlier investors until it all eventually collapses in on itself.