Bone anatomy Anatomy of the bones

Question Answer
The Skeletal system consist of ? Bones, Joints, and supporting tissue
Functions of the skeletal system are? ProtectionMineral storage and Acid-Base homeostasisBlood cell formationFat storageMovementSupport
Long bones Longer than wideIncludes most bones in arms and legs
Short bones Roughly cube shapedIncludes carpals and metal carpals
Flat bones Thin and broad bonesribs, pelvis, sternum, and flat bones in skull
Irregular bones Include vertebrae and certain skull bones
Sesamoid bones Bone located within tendon
Parts that make up a long bone PeriosteumPerforating fibersDiaphysisEpiphysisArticular cartilage Marrow cavityEndosteum
Compact bone Hard, dense outer regionallows bone to resist stresses( Compression and twisting)
Spongy bone found inside cortical boneHoneycomb like framework of bony strutsResist forces from many directions
Epiphyseal lines Seperates epiphysis from diaphysisRemnants of epiphyseal plates
Epiphyseal plates Hyaline cartilage found in developing bones of children
Periosteum Membrane that surrounds outer surface
Perforating fibers Anchors periosteum firmly to bone surface
Diaphysis Shaft of a long bone
Epiphysis End of long bone
Articular cartilage Hyaline cartilage
Marrow cavity Contains bone marrow ( red or yellow)
Endosteum Thin membrane lining marrow cavity
Inorganic matrix Consisting of minerals
Organic matrix Osteoid Consists of collagen fibers and usual ECM
Osteogenic cell Differentiate into osteoblast
Osteoblast cell Bone deposition
Osteocytes Mature bone cells in lacunae
Osteoclasts cell Bone resorptionSecrete acids and enzymes
Osteon roughly cylindrical structures that are typically several millimeters long and around 0.2mm in diameter
Parts of an osteon LamellaeCentral canalLacunaeCanaliculiPerforating canals
Lamellae Concentric rings of thin layer bone
Central sterile Contains blood vessels and nerves
Lacunae Space for osteocyte
Canaliculi Little canals
Perforating canals Perpendicular to central canals
Intramembranous ossification Forms many flat bonesForms primary ossification centerSpongy bone ossifies before outer compact bone layers
Fontanels Areas of incomplete intramembranous ossification
Endochondral ossification Bone development for all bones below head except claviclesMany bones complete ossification by age 7
Appositional growth Grow in width
Epiphyseal plate Growth in length

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