BNC – Ch 16

Manuel is a manager for a manufacturing company in which managers are expected to fully document all decisions, and it is important to provide detailed data to support any recommendations. Also, out-of-the-box thinking is dissuaded. Which characteristic of organizational culture describes this aspect of Manuel’s job?
a) low team orientation
b) high aggressiveness
c) low risk taking
d) low outcome orientation
e) high people orientation
c) low risk taking
Seven primary characteristics seem to capture the essence of an organization’s culture:
1. Innovation and risk taking
2. Attention to detail
3. Outcome orientation
4. People orientation
5. Team orientation
6. Aggressiveness
7. Stability
Research has conceptualized culture into four different types based on competing values. What are those types?
1. Clan
2. Adhocracy
3. Hierarchy
4. Market
A strong culture should reduce employee turnover, because it results in ________.
a) a highly centralized organization
b) narrow spans of control
c) cohesiveness and organizational commitment
d) a highly formalized organization
e) an outcome-oriented organization
c) cohesiveness and organizational commitment
Grace works for a pet store where everyone is committed to the happiness of the animals. Often employees, bosses, and hourly workers alike, come into the store “off the clock” and spend time training the animals. Everyone loves the store, the animals, and their jobs. This attitude of her co-workers inspires Grace to do her best. Based on this information, we can say that Grace is experiencing the effects of ________.
a) decentralization
b) organizational climate
c) high departmentalization
d) low formalization
e) high work specialization
b) organizational climate
Culture is most likely to be a liability when ________.
a) the employees of the organization are highly skilled
b) the organization’s environment is dynamic
c) the organization’s management is highly efficient
d) the organization is highly centralized
e) the organization scores low on the degree of formalization
b) the organization’s environment is dynamic
Top management has a major impact on the organization’s culture by ________.
a) establishing norms that filter down through the organization
b) ensuring a proper match of personal and organizational values
c) socializing new applicants in the pre-hiring phase
d) providing a framework for metamorphosis of new hires
e) properly rewarding employees’ initiatives
a) establishing norms that filter down through the organization
We can think of socialization as a process with three stages. What are they?
1) pre-arrival
2) encounter
3) metamorphosis
________ is a process that helps new employees adapt to the prevailing organizational culture.
a) Satisficing
b) Reciprocal interdependence
c) Socialization
d) Formalization
e) Social loafing
c) Socialization
When you start to accept the differences between your expectations and the reality of the organization, you move into the ________ stage of socialization.
a) prearrival
b) post-arrival
c) acceptance
d) metamorphosis
e) post-encounter
d) metamorphosis
Bruce is new at Wayne Corp., but after a week he already knows that the founder of the corporation started the business in his garage with only $4,000 and one client. This information was most likely transmitted to Bruce by way of ________.
a) stories
b) material symbols
c) rituals
d) organizational charts
e) corporate chants
a) stories
Larry has an employee who is amazing at clearly seeing rules and enforcing them. He has recently promoted her to the lead position in quality assurance. Which method of creating a positive organizational culture is Larry utilizing?
a) rewarding more than punishing
b) building on organization strengths
c) using standardized practices
d) building on employee strengths
d) building on employee strengths
Organizations that promote a spiritual culture ________.
a) use stories for transmitting the organizational culture to the employees
b) use wide spans of control
c) recognize that people seek to find meaning and purpose in their work
d) de-emphasize community differences within the organization
e) tend to downplay the importance of employee satisfaction
c) recognize that people seek to find meaning and purpose in their work
“Stability” is one of the seven primary characteristics that captures the essence of an organization’s culture. It indicates the degree to which ________.

A) work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals
B) employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks
C) management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve them
D) management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization
E) organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth

E) organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth
Which of the following statements best describes the difference between organizational culture and job satisfaction?

A) Job satisfaction is immeasurable, whereas organizational culture is measurable.
B) Job satisfaction depends upon the level of “power distance” in the country but organizational culture does not.
C) Organizational culture is static, whereas job satisfaction is dynamic.
D) Job satisfaction depends on the structure of the organization but organizational culture does not.
E) Organizational culture is descriptive, whereas job satisfaction is evaluative.

E) Organizational culture is descriptive, whereas job satisfaction is evaluative.
The primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization are known as ________.
A) core values
B) foundational traits
C) institutional traits
D) shared values
E) unique values
A) core values
Which of the following is most likely to result from a strong organizational culture?
A) low employee satisfaction
B) high absenteeism
C) low employee turnover
D) low behavioral control resulting from the climate within the organization
E) low organizational commitment
C) low employee turnover
Which of the following statements is true regarding the establishment of the organizational culture and its effects on the organization?

A) Employees organized in teams always show greater allegiance to the values of the organization as a whole than to their team and its values.
B) Culture acts as a control mechanism and guides the behavior of employees.
C) In a virtual organization a strong culture can be established quickly and easily.
D) Today’s trend toward decentralized organizations makes it is easier to establish a strong culture.
E) Cultures reduce the stability of the social system in an organization.

B) Culture acts as a control mechanism and guides the behavior of employees.
Culture is most likely to be a liability when ________.
A) the organization is highly centralized
B) the employees of the organization are highly skilled
C) the organization scores low on the degree of formalization
D) the organization’s environment is dynamic
E) the organization’s management is highly efficient
D) the organization’s environment is dynamic
The selection process helps sustain the organization’s culture by ________.
A) hiring candidates who fit well within the organization
B) rewarding conformity
C) developing performance evaluation criteria
D) socializing the new employees
E) establishing and enforcing norms
A) hiring candidates who fit well within the organization
Top management has a major impact on the organization’s culture by ________.
A) ensuring a proper match of personal and organizational values
B) socializing new applicants in the pre-hiring phase
C) establishing norms that filter down through the organization
D) providing a framework for metamorphosis of new hires
E) properly rewarding employees’ initiatives
C) establishing norms that filter down through the organization
If there is a basic conflict between the individual’s expectations and the reality of working in an organization, the employee is most likely to be disillusioned and quit during the ________ stage of socialization.

A) metamorphosis
B) prearrival
C) post-arrival
D) encounter
E) post-encounter

D) encounter
Which of the following types of socialization involves putting the new employee directly into the job, with little or no special attention?
A) informal socialization
B) serial socialization
C) collective socialization
D) fixed socialization
E) investiture socialization
A) informal socialization
You are new to an organization and do not really know what to expect about the socialization process. You recently received your MBA and have an undergraduate degree in computer science. Your new firm is a software development company with an emphasis in the healthcare industry. Your hiring process included campus interviews, a daylong trip for an interview at the company, an offer phone call and letter, and some promotional material sent via the mail. When you arrive for your first day at work, you spend half a day in an orientation session that is conducted by the human resources department, where you complete paperwork and receive a company handbook. Then you spend the rest of the day with your supervisor, who gives you a tour, introduces you to your co-workers, and explains your first project. After that, you begin working and getting to know the others in the company. You find that in most respects, your experience fits your expectations, but in some ways you are surprised by realities that you hadn’t expected. None of these surprises is too difficult to accept, so you eventually begin to feel at home and happy with your new job.

Your supervisor provides you a mentor to help you with your work and guide you. This shows that your supervisor is using a(n) ________ socialization technique.

A) variable
B) informal
C) serial
D) random
E) divestiture

C) serial
Bruce is new at Wayne Corp., but after a week he already knows that the founder of the corporation started the business in his garage with only $4,000 and one client. This information was most likely transmitted to Bruce by way of ________.

A) rituals
B) corporate chants
C) material symbols
D) stories
E) organizational charts

D) stories
Company chants are examples of ________.
A) company policies
B) business strategies
C) rituals
D) material symbols
E) stories
C) rituals
Alcoa headquarters has few individual offices, even for senior executives. The space is essentially made up of cubicles, common areas, and meeting rooms. This informality conveys to employees that Alcoa values ________.

A) autocracy
B) equality
C) rigidity
D) formalization
E) competitiveness

B) equality
When Mary joins Wayne Enterprises, she is made to sign an agreement including the “non-compete clause” (an agreement where the employee promises not to work for a competing firm for a set period after leaving his or her current employer), as a condition of her employment. Though courts nowadays are increasingly ruling that these agreements are not binding, most competitor firms are unwilling to consider hiring Mary during the period covered by the agreement. Which of the following, if true, explains this situation?

A) The companies’ main source of new employees tends to be people who are already employed by competing firms.
B) Most companies that require their employees to sign agreements not to compete are aware that these documents are not legally binding.
C) Most companies consider their employees’ established relationships with clients and other people outside the company to be valuable company assets.
D) Most companies will not risk getting involved in lawsuits, even suits that they expect to have a favorable outcome.
E) Most people who have signed such agreements are willing to renege on a promise by going to work for a competing firm.

D) Most companies will not risk getting involved in lawsuits, even suits that they expect to have a favorable outcome.
A positive organizational culture emphasizes ________.
A) individual vitality and growth
B) the significance of highly centralized management
C) the use of rituals in transmitting organizational culture
D) the use of negative reinforcement and punishment
E) organizational standardization and institutionalization
A) individual vitality and growth
Liz is the lead editor for a small, city newspaper. One of her advertising sales representatives is pulling in a lot of restaurant clients. Liz realizes that the representative is quite knowledgeable about food and speaks quite elegantly when describing different dishes. She has begun discussing with the representative the possibility of collaborating with a writer to include a weekly restaurant review, which includes the representative on the byline. After the first couple of reviews, the representative is able to increase ad sizes and sales. He is very happy with his new job diversification. Which aspect of creating a positive organizational culture is Liz utilizing?

A) building on organization strengths
B) using narrow spans of control
C) rewarding more than punishing
D) emphasizing individual vitality and growth
E) creating loose management oversight

D) emphasizing individual vitality and growth
How can U.S. managers be culturally sensitive?
A) by discussing politics frequently
B) by listening more
C) by talking in a high tone of voice
D) by speaking quickly
E) by indulging in frequent discussions about religion
B) by listening more
All societies are divided into several economic roles. The values of a society are embodied in the people who fill various economic roles. Therefore, the introduction of labor saving technology like automation makes certain economic roles obsolete. This tends to undermine the values in that society. Which of the following can be concluded on the basis of the information above?

A) If societies are shielded from technological advancement, they will possess unchanging values.
B) A technologically advanced society will eliminate all values on the prestige associated with an economic role.
C) Technology doesn’t undermine the values in a social system.
D) Technology cannot eliminate economic roles in a society whose values are insusceptible to change.
E) A technological innovation that is implemented in a society foreign to the one in which it was developed will tend to undermine the society in which it is developed.

D) Technology cannot eliminate economic roles in a society whose values are insusceptible to change.
Which of the following statements is true regarding effects of national culture on organizational culture and ethical behavior within organization?

A) Organizations can safely ignore local culture while establishing its operation in another country.
B) Most U.S. managers do not view profit maximization as a moral obligation.
C) Organizational cultures rarely reflect national culture.
D) Generally, U.S. managers see bribery, nepotism, and favoring personal contacts as highly unethical.
E) As compared to managers in the United States, managers in developing economies are less likely to see ethical decisions as embedded in a social environment.

D) Generally, U.S. managers see bribery, nepotism, and favoring personal contacts as highly unethical.