Biology Exam 1

Question Answer
Identify the major organic molecules found in living cells and organisms. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids.
Describe the role of cells in living things. They make reproduction, growth, and repair possible.
What is the difference between metabolism and homeostasis? Metabolism maintains life and allows organisms to grow. Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes in surroundings.
What is the importance of homeostasis? Illness can result if homeostasis fails. It is maintained through corrective measures that slow or reverse a variation from the normal value of a factor and return factor to its normal value (body temp).
Name the steps in the scientific method and the processes involved in each step. Observation, Hypothesis, Prediction, Experiment, Results, and conclusion if the results support the hypothesis. If the results don't then hypothesis is revised with new prediction and experiment.
What are the characteristics that are common to all living things? Living things have nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. They are composed of cells, they grow and reproduce, living things use energy and raw materials, respond to their environment, maintain homeostasis, and living things evolve and adapt.
What are the domains and the organisms that belong in them? The domains are bacteria: unicellular prokaryotic organisms, archaea: unicellular prokaryotic cells in extreme conditions, and eukarya: eukaryotic cells that contain a nucleus and internal compartments.
What is the difference between a single-celled and multicellular organism? Single celled organisms are prokaryotic and multicellular organisms are eukaryotic. Prokaryotic cells are smaller and simpler cells of bacteria and archaea. Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles.
What is a population? All individuals of the same species in an area.
What is a community? All the species in an ecosystem that can interact.
What is an ecosystem? A community and its physical environment.
What is a biosphere? The part of the earth that supports life.
What is inductive reasoning? facts accumulated through observation until the sheer weight of the evidence allows some logical statement to be made.
What is deductive reasoning? begins with a general statement that leads logically to one or more deductions or conclusions.
What is the importance of a control group in any scientific investigation? The control group in any scientific investigation is designed the same way as the experimental group except for the variable that the investigation is trying to reveal.
What are the components of the double-blind experiment? The researchers and the and study participants don't know who gets the treatment or placebo.
Describe the structure of the neutral atom and explain why it has a neutral charge. Atoms that have the same number of protons and electrons make them neutral.
Explain how an isotope and ion are different from a neutral atom. An isotope has the same number of protons but differ in neutrons. An ion is an atom or group of atoms that carry a negative or positive electrical charge.
How many electrons can be held in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd electron shells? The first shell can hold 2 electrons. The second can hold 8 electrons and atoms with more than 10 electrons have a third shell.
How can you calculate the number of electrons if given the atomic number? The atomic number is the same as the number of electrons.
What is the difference between covalent, ionic, and polar covalent bonds? A covalent bond forms when two or more atoms share electrons in their outer shells. An ionic bond results from the mutual attraction of oppositely charged ions. Unequal covalent bonds are polar.
Describe the difference between an acid and a base. Describe the pH of each. An acid is anything that releases hydrogen ions when placed in water and increases hydrogen ions. A base is anything that releases hydroxide ions and decreases hydrogen ions. A pH of less than 7 is acidic and greater than 7 is basic.
Explain what a buffer does. Buffers remove excess hydrogen ions from solution when concentrations of hydrogen ions increase. Buffers add hydrogen ions when concentrations of hydrogen ions decrease.
What is the difference between a solvent and a solute? A solvent dissolves a solute which is a dissolved substance.
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats? Saturated fats have only single covalent bonds linking the carbon atoms. Unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds between carbon atoms.
What is the difference between the primary and Secondary structures of proteins? The primary structure is the sequence of amino acids and dictates a protein's structure and function. The secondary structure consists of patterns like helices or pleated sheets that bend due to hydrogen bonding.
What is the difference between tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins? Tertiary structures are the 3-D shapes of proteins and quaternary structures are the results of assembled subunits.
Explain the importance of ATP and describe its structure. Adenosine Triphosphate is a nucleotide that breaks down when cells need energy. Consists of the sugar ribose, the base adenine, and three phosphate groups.

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