Behavior Therapy

triadic reciprocal determinism –
the dynamic between the person, behaviors, and the environment in which the behavior is performed; the belief that cognition, behavior, and the environment operate interactively as determinants of one another; belief that cognition, behavior, and the environment operate interactively as determinants of one another.
anticipated outcomes –
A person’s expectancy that the performance of certain behaviors will secure certain reinforces.
observational learning
Learning a new behavior by watching another person and the consequences of their behavior
Efficacy expectations
Bandura’s term for the expectancies we have regarding our ability to perform behaviors we set out to accomplish
Four sources of information and relative importance in determining “efficacy expectations”
1. Performance accomplishments – most important of the four, past experiences in which one has been successful (personal mastery experiences).
2. Vicarious experiences – having watched others of similar capability succeed or fail.
3. Verbal persuasion – e.g., “go on, you can do it.”
4. Emotional arousal level – higher arousal usually impedes performance.
ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES
Bandura relies on the “experimental method.” Showed that manipulation of “antecedents” (environmental conditions) can alter cognitions which can in turn alter behavior.
THEORY’S IMPLICATIONS FOR THERAPY”Modeling”
has been used in many situations to help alleviate fears and develop effective behaviors
guided participation modeling
the client watches an effective “model” perform a behavior (e.g., a social skill), and then, with assistance from the model, attempts the behavior himself/herself. Simply watching (observing) a model demonstrating effective coping is NOT as effective as guided participation modeling
Applied value
Bandura’s social learning theory has been influential in the areas of education and behavior therapy.
behavior therapies
action therapies based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior
behavior modification or applied behavior analysis
the use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behavior
participant modeling
technique in which a model demonstrates the desired behavior in a step by step, gradual process while the client is encouraged to imitate the model
time-out
an extinction process in which a person is removed from the situation that provides reinforcement for undesirable behavior, usually being placed in a quiet corner or room away from possible attention and reinforcement opportunities
cognitive therapy
therapy in which the focus is on helping clients recognize distortions in their thinking and replace distorted, unrealistic beliefs with more realistic, helpful thoughts
arbitrary inference
distortion of thinking in which a person draws a conclusion that is not based on any evidence
selective thinking
distortion of thinking in which a person focuses on only one aspect of a situation while ignoring all other relevant aspects
overgeneralization
distortion of thinking in which a person draws sweeping conclusions based on only one incident or event and applies those conclusions to events that are unrelated to the original
magnification and minimization
distortions of thinking in which a person blows a negative event out of proportion to its importance (magnification) while ignoring relevant positive events (minimization)
personalization
distortion of thinking in which a person takes responsibility or blame for events that are unconnected to the person
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
action therapy in which the goal is to help clients overcome problems by learning to think more rationally and logically
rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
cognitive-behavioral therapy in which clients are directly challenged in their irrational beliefs and helped to restructure their thinking into more rational belief statements
family counseling (family therapy)
a form of group therapy in which family members meet together with the counselor or therapist to resolve problems that affect the entire family
self-help groups (support groups)
a group composed of people who have similar problems and who meet together without a therapist or counselor the purpose of discussion, problem solving, and social and emotional support
eclectic therapies
therapy style that results form combining elements of several different therapy techniques
therapeutic alliance
the relationship between therapist and client that develops as a warm, caring, accepting relationship characterized by empathy, mutual respect, and understanding
cybertherapy
psychotherapy that is offered on the Internet. Also called online, Internet, or Web therapy or counseling
Negative Reinforcement
Behavior increases because negative (aversive) stimulus is removed; makes a behavior stronger by taking away a negative stimulus;The termination or withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus as a result of performing some desired behavior.
Positive Punishment
Presentation of undesirable stimulus following a behavior for purpose of decreasing or eliminating behavior; reducing the behavior by presenting an unpleasant stimulus when the behavior occurs; An aversive stimulus is added after the behavior to decrease the frequency of the behavior.
Negative Punishment
Removal of a desirable stimulus following a behavior for purpose of decreasing or eliminating that behavior; reduces the behavior by removing a pleasant stimulus when the behavior occurs; A reinforcing stimulus is removed following the behavior to decrease the frequency of a target behavior.
Chain
When one performance produces the conditions that make the next one possible
Fading
A term used to describe a procedure for gradually changing one stimulus controlling a behavior to another one
Prescriptions
The worker tells the client specifically how to behave in certain situations and then expects client to behave that way
Operant Conditioning
Antecedent events or stimuli precede behaviors, which are followed by consequences; when learning is influenced by consequences delivered; when learning is influenced by consequences delivered; Selection of behavior through it’s consequences; A type of learning in which behavior is influenced mainly by the consequences that follow them.
Contingency Contract
An agreement between two or more individuals that specifies a behavior change and the positive and negative consequences if that agreement is not honored; a formal, written agreement between the therapist and client (or teacher and student) in which goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated
In vivo desensitization
Pairing and movement through anxiety heirarchy from least to most anxiety provoking situation in real situation; Brief and graduated exposure to an actual fear situation or event
Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)
Cognitive therapy that seeks change in irrational beliefs by argument, persuasion, rational reevaluation
Triadic reciprocity
The idea that behavior is determined through the interaction of behavioral, personal (cognitive, affective, biological), and environmental variables
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
bobo doll
experiment held in 1940s; kids placed in room with bobo doll and hammer, nothing happened; second group show movie where adult hits bag with hammer and the kids followed suit when placed with bag and hammer; people’s behavior can become more violent as a result of violent media
social cognitive theory
Albert Bandura’s theory of personality, which emphasizes the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experiences, self-efficacy beliefs, and reciprocal determinism.
Bandura’s constructivism
building, creating, executing
Bandura’s modeling
attention, retention, reproduction and motivation
Bandura’s agents
individuals are capable of self regulation, self-reflection, self organization
reciprocal determinism
the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment
vicarious reinforcement
Phenomenon in which a response increases in frequency when another person is observed being reinforced for that response.
self-efficacy beliefs
beliefs that one can engage in the behaviors necessary to overcome a situation
Human agency
people are agents and actors who cope with, adapt to, and change social structures to meet their needs
What’s the point of Observational Learning
It is not just reinforcement; most human behavior is learned through example. (Example: Modeling)
Internal Variables vs Skinner
Bandura believed that cognitive processes (or internal variables) can influence observational learning, that we make conscious decisions to imitate what we observe. Skinner proposed that there is only learning through reinforcement and consequences.
Bandura’s view of operant conditioning
Bandura believed that operant conditioning (trial and error until you happen upon the right response) is a dangerous way to learn skills.
Aggression
The study of 9 year olds watching aggressive movies followed 10 and 20 years later showed that aggression modeling still had an impact on people.
Disinhibition
What one would normally suppress would do in the presence of a model crowd behavior. (Riot and Sexual Behavior Magazine example)
Characteristics of Models
Models are like us, they are alive (not a cartoon), and they are usually peers. Status and prestige play a role, usually simple, and low self-esteem follows confidence.
Types of Behavior Model by children
A child would imitate another child or a child on film, but not necessarily a cartoon character.
Factors and processes in observational learning
Attentional (pay attention), Retentional (memory), Production (getting feedback), and Incentive (only do it for incentive) processes.
What is self-reinforcement
Rewards or punishments to ones self for succeeding or falling short. (Tattoo example)
How to enhance Self-Efficacy
Through reaching goals, seeing others succeed, verbal persuasion, and physiological arousal.
Bandura’s view of human nature (free-will vs determinism)
Nurture is slightly higher than nature. People are unique and can change through behavior modification.
Recipricol Determinism
Believed in free will but nurture is higher than nature. (50/50)
Effects of TV violence
Bad for society. Aggressive behavior is conclusive, but everybody ignores it.
What was the point of the bobo doll study
Modeling to show that the kids did what the model did and then did worse things (using guns and other weapons to hurt the doll.)
What was supposed to have been drained from the bobo doll (Freud)
Their aggression should have been drained according to Freud, but it wasn’t.
Questions from the videos presented by students
Wall Street Money, Oliver Twist, and Big Daddy.
ABC Model
Antecedent-Behavior-Consequences; This model of behavior posits that behavior is influenced by some particular events that precede it, called antecedents and by certain events that follow it called consequences.
Acceptance
A process involving receiving our present experience without judgment or preference, but with curiosity and gentleness, and thriving for full awareness of the present moment
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)
a mindfulness-based program that encourages clients to accept, rather than attempt to deny, control or change unpleasant sensations; a form of cognitive therapy that helps clients accept the full range of their subjective experiences, such as distressing thoughts and feelings, as they commit themselves to tasks aimed at achieving behavior change that will lead to an improved quality of life.
Anger Management training
A social skills program designed for individuals who have trouble with aggressive behavior.
Antecedent events
Are events that cue or elicit a certain behavior;, An environmental event hat occurs immediately before the response. Used generically when it is not certain what function the events serves.
Applied behavior analysis
Another term for behavior modification; this approach seeks to understand the causes of behavior and address these causes by changing antecedents and consequences.
assertion training
A set of techniques that involves behavioral rehearsal, coaching, and learning more effective social skills; specific skills training procedures used to teach people ways to express both positive and negative feelings openly and directly.
assessment interview
Questioning that enables the therapist to identify the particular antecedent and consequent events that influence or are functionally related to an individual’s behavior.
BASIC I.D.
The conceptual framework of mulitmodal therapy, based on the premise that human personality can be understood by assessing seven major areas of functioning: behavior, effective responses, sensations, images, cognitions, interpersonal relationships, and drugs/biological functions.
Behavior modifications
A therapeutic approach that deals with analyzing and modifying human behavior
Behavior rehearsal
A technique consisting of trying out in therapy new behaviors (performing target behaviors) that are to be used in everyday situations; General technique for expanding the patient’s repertoire of coping behaviors.Successful behavioral rehearsal involves explaining to the patient the necessity of acquiring the new behaviors, selecting target situations, conducting the rehearsal with feedback and having the patient apply the newly acquired skills in real-life situations.
Behavior therapy
This approach refers to the application of diverse techniques and procedures, which are supported by empirical evidence
Behavior analysis
Identifying the maintaining conditions by systematically gathering information about situational antecedents, the dimensions of the problem behavior, and the consequences of the problem.
Behavioral assessment
a set of procedures used to get information that will guide the development of a tailor-made treatment plan for each client and help measure the effectiveness of treatment
Classical conditioning
Also known as Pavlovian conditioning and respondent conditioning. A form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that naturally elicits a particular response. The result is that eventually the neutral stimulus alone elicits the response; Pavlovian conditioning; repetitive training w/neutral stimulus; Stimulus-response approach to behavior. Does not involve new behaviors, connection of existing responses to new stimulus (Pavolv’s Dog). Pairing previously neutral stimulus with involuntary stimulus.
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)
An approach that blends both cognitive and behavioral methods to bring about change.
Cognitive behavior coping skills therapy
Procedures aimed at teaching clients specific skills to deal effectively with problematic situations
Cognitive processes
Internal events such as thoughts, beliefs, perceptions, and self-statements
Consequences
Events that take place as a result of a specific behavior being performed.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)
A blend of behavioral and psychoanalytic techniques aimed at treating personality disorders like borderline; primarily developed by Marsha Linehan; aimed at teaching problem-solving skills, interpersonal skills, and skill at managing negative emotions; encourages clients to accept intense emotions, cope with emotions by making changes in life.
Evidence-based treatments
Therapeutic interventions that have empirical evidence to support their use
Exposure therapies
treatment for fears and other negative emotional responses by carefully exposing clients to situations or events contributing to such problems
Functional assessment
The process of systematically generating information on the events preceding and following the behavior in an attempt to determine which antecedents and consequences are associated with the occurrence of the behavior.
mindfulness
A process that involves becoming increasingly observant and aware of external and internal stimuli in the present moment and adopting an open attitude toward accepting what is, rather than judging the current situation.
Mindfulness [and Acceptance] based cognitive Behavior therapy.
comprehensive integration of the principles and skills of mindfulness, acceptance, the therapeutic relationship, spirituality, values, meditation, being in the moment and emotional expression applied to the treatment of depression.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)
This program applies mindfulness techniques to coping with stress and promoting physical and psychological health; include sitting meditation and mindful yoga which are aimed at cultivating mindfulness; also includes body scan mediation by observing all the sensations in the their body.
Multimodal therapy
A model indorsing technical eclecticism; uses procedures drawn from various sources without necessarily subscribing to the theories behind these techniques; developed by Arnold Lazarus.
Punishment
The process in which a behavior is followed by a consequence that results in a decrease in the future probability of a behavior. Decreases frequency of behavior; process in which a behavior is weakened thus less likely to occur again; reduces the rate of responding.
Reinforcement
A specified event that strengthens the tendency for a response to be repeated. It involves some kind of reward or the removal of an aversive stimulus following a response; Increases frequency of behavior; the strengthening of a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus; increases frequency of desired behavior;
Self-efficacy
An individual’s belief or expectation that he or she can master a situation and bring about desired change; Feelings of inadequacy when coping with life. (Old pplz who believed their memory was good actually had a better memory.)
Social-modification
A collection of cognitive behavior strategies based on the idea that change can be brought about by teaching people to use coping skills in various problematic situations;
Self-monitoring
The process of observing one’s own behavior patterns as well as one’s interactions in carious social situations; observing one’s behaviors and interactions in social settings.
Social effectiveness training (SET)
A multifaceted treatment program designed to reduce social anxiety, improve interpersonal skills, and increase the range of enjoyable social activities.
Social learning approach
A perspective holding that behavior is best understood by taking into consideration that social conditions under which learning occurs; developed primarily by Albert Bandura.
Social skills training
This training involves a broad category that deals with an individual’s ability to interact effectively with others in carious social situations. A treatment package used to teach clients skills that include modeling, behavior rehearsal, and reinforcement; training clients in skills necessary for common social activities, such as meeting new people, initiating conversations, going on job interviews and dating.
skinner box
provide an environment in which operant responses could be readily observed and automatically recorded
response
rat presses lever or pigeon pecks a disk
positive reinforcer
any stimulus the presentation of which strengthens the behavior upon which is it made contingent
primary reinforcers
reinforcers, such as food, which is innate
secondary reinforcers
reinforcers such as money, become effective once the value is learned
negative reinforcer
an outcome stimulus that ends when a response occurs
continuous reinforcement
responses that always produce reinforcement
partial reinforcement
only some of the responses are followed by reinforcement
fixed ratio
reinforce according to the number of responses that have been emitted
variable ratio
reinforcement are given according to the number of responses the organism has made
fixed interval
reinforces responses based on the passage of time
variable interval
reinforces according to time intervals that change form reinforcement to reinforcement
behavior modification
therapeutic approach that systematically applies learning principles to change behavior
functional analysis
identifying the stimuli and reinforcements influencing the behavior
token economies
systematically reward behavior with tokens in a group setting
Operant condition
learning that occurs through rewards and punishments
reinforcements
process in which a behavior is strengthened thus more likely to happen again.
positive reinforcement
make the behavior stronger by following the behavior with a pleasant stimulus; A form of conditioning whereby the individual receives something desirable; consequence of his or her behavior reward that increases probability of its recurrence; Increases the probability that behavior will occur.
Compared to Skinner’s approach, Bandura’s theory is more
cognitive
according to Bandura, the four core features of human agency are intentionality, ___, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness
forethought
Bandura calls situations in life beyond one’s deliberate control
chance encounters and fortuitous events
according to bandura, __ is a person’s expectations that he or she can or cannot execute the behavior necessary to effect a successful change in a particular situations
self-efficacy
In Bandura’s view, vicarious experiences are likely to have their strongest effect on self-efficacy when the observer
sees a person of equal ability to succeed
In Bandura’s view, self-efficacy is most likely to be increased when
one successfully performs a difficult task
according to bandura, in general, intense physiological arousal
lowers efficacy expectations
a rapist excuses his violent assault on the victim by claiming that she provoked the attack by dressing provovatively. according to bandura, this technique of disengagement is
blaming the victim
According to Bandura, observing a model being punished for performance will decrease one’s likelihood of
performing the modeled behavior
bandura sees dysfuctional bahavior as
initiated and maintained on the basis of social learning principles
Judgmental processes
According to Bandura, depressed individuals are inclined to punish themselves severely for poor performance; this illustrates distortion of judgmental processes.
On the issue of determinism versus free will, Bandura favors a position that emphasizes
partial determinism
Basically, Bandura views humans as
cognitive animals
contingency management
reinforcement that is contingent on behavior being performed; any one of a variety of operant conditioning techniques that attempts to control a behavior by manipulating its consequences.
deceleration
decrease maladaptive behavior
thought stopping
technique for temporarily interrupting negative thinking
behavioral rehearsal
technique in which target behavior(s) are role-played
contingency contracting
a written, behavior-consequence agreement with significant other; Written agreement between a client and another person that specifies the relationship between performing target behaviors and their consequences; technique in which the therapist and patient draw up a contract that specifies the behaviors that are desired and undesired as well as the consequences of engaging or failing to engage in these behaviors.
extinction
When a previous behavior no longer exists; reduction of responding when reinforcement ceases; When a previously reinforced behavior is no longer followed by the reinforcing consequences, the result is a decrease in the frequency of the behavior in the future; Withholding a reinforcer that normally follows a behavior with consequent deadline in the behavior; the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a behavior; elimination of an undesired response (behavioral, emotional);
token economy
reinforcement system for motivating clients to perform desired behaviors; token given as reinforcement that can later be traded in for something; the use of objects called tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desired items or privileges.
behavioral activation
helping clients to increase activities that are likely to bring feelings of pleasure and/or mastery
assertiveness training
training clients to use behaviors that protect their rights while respecting the rights of others
communication skills
training clients in skills that will make them more effective as both speakers and listeners
problem solving
training clients to generate, evaluate, and implement possible solutions to problems they face
graded task assignment
helping clients to break tasks they find overwhelming into small steps, and to start with the easiest step; as clients gain confidence, they are encouraged to try more difficult steps
distraction
teaching clients to use mentally absorbing activities to prevent themselves from dwelling on negative thoughts
in vivo exposure
exposing clients to actually anxiety-provoking cues in real-life situations; Involves client exposure to actual anxiety-envoking events rather than merely imagining these situations
imaginal exposure
using guided imagery to expose clients to feared cues in their imaginations
Systematic desensitization
– client is taught a response that competes with anxiety
– anxiety items are ordered into an anxiety hierarchy
– client repeatedly visualizes anxiety-evoking events while performing the competing response, i.e. relaxation; A procedure based on the principles of classical conditioning in which the client is taught to relax while imagining a graded series of progressively anxiety-arousing situations. Eventually, the client reaches a point at which the anxiety-producing stimulus no longer brings about the anxious response; behavior technique used to treat phobias, in which a client is asked to make a list of ordered fears and taught to relax while concentration on those fears; behavioral technique for reducing anxiety in which patients practice relaxation while visualizing anxiety-provoking situations of increasing intensity; Patient becomes “desensitized” to the feared stimulus; Anxiety producing stimulus is paired with relaxing producing response so that eventually stimulus produces relaxation. Involves rewards: gift, compliment, relaxation; homework and follow up essential.
flooding
client exposed to stimuli that elicits high levels of anxiety; client remains exposed w/o engaging in anxiety-reducing behaviors;
prolonged and intensive imaginary or “in vivo” exposure to highly anxiety-evoking stimuli without the opportunity to avoid or escape from them; technique for treating phobias and other stress disorders in which the person is rapidly and intensely exposed to the fear provoking situation or object and prevented from making the usual avoidance or escape response.
modeling
Exposes the client to one or more individuals presently, filmed, or imagined who demonstrate behaviors that the client wishes to adopt; collectively this demonstrates the adaptive behavior so that clients may imitate it; learning through the observation and imitation of others; through modeling acquire responses that we did not previously know; learning through the observation and imitation of others; also known as observational learning; the learning of a new skill or set of behaviors by observing another person perform these skills/behaviors.
rebreathing
a technique for clients with panic disorders who hyper-ventilate; this technique involves teaching clients to breathe in air they have already exhaled, in order to restore proper oxygen balance.
relaxation therapy
training clients in various techniques to induce physical relaxation as a means of coping with anxiety; includes deep breathing, meditation, mental imagery, biofeedback.
breathing relaxation
teaching clients breathing exercises to induce a relaxation response
progressive muscle relaxation
teaching clients a set of techniques in which different muscle groups are first tensed and then relaxed, in order to induce a relaxation response
visualization
teaching clients to use pleasant imagery in order to distract themselves from negative thinking and to induce relaxation
counterconditioning
A behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning; Includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning; principle of substituting relaxation for an anxiety response.
aversion therapy
Form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior; type of treatment in which an undesired behavior is consistently followed by an unpleasant consequence, thus decreasing the strength of the behavior over time; unpleasant or painful stimulus is presented while the client is engaging in undesired behavior; Treatment aimed at reducing attractiveness of a stimulus or a behavior by repeated pairing with aversive stimuli [real or imaged] (called Anabuse).
covert sensitization
form of aversion therapy; patients are direct to imagine themselves engaging in an undesired behavior and then instructed to imagine extremely aversive events occurring once they have the undesired behavior in mind.
exposure and response prevention
A behavioral intervention in which clients are encouraged to confront a frightening thought or situation and then prevented form engaging in anxiety-reducing behaviors.
exposure therapy
behavioral technique for reducing anxiety. patients expose themselves (in real life or fantasy) to stimuli or situations that are feared or avoided.
habituation
elimination of a response that comes about from the repeated and/or prolonged presentation of the provoking stimulus
overcorrection
form of aversion therapy in which the client is made to “overcorrect” for the consequences of his or her undesired behavior.
Premack principle
(Grandma’s rule) contingency management technique in which a behavior is reinforced by allowing the individual to engage in a more attractive activity once the target behavior is completed.
response cost
form of aversion therapy in which positive reinforcers are removed following an undesired behavior
shaping
contingency management technique in which a behavior is developed by first rewarding any behavior that approximates it and then by selectively reinforcing behaviors that more and more resemble the target behavior; reinforcing successive approximations of the desired responses
successive approximation
another term for shaping
To be effective exposure must do what?
provoke anxiety, be of sufficient duration, and must be repeated until all anxiety is eliminated
Consequences
Consequences are the result of a behavior. They may reinforce, punish, or have no influence over future occurrences of the behavior; events that maintain a behavior in some way either by increasing or decreasing it.
EMDR
This is based on the assumption that exposure to a trauma can block a neurophysiological adaptive information processing mechanism. It combines rapid lateral eye movements, which are believed to trigger this mechanism– with exposure and other techniques drawn from cognitive, behavioral and psychodynamic approaches.
Self-modification
Emphasizes that change can be brought about by teaching people to use coping skills in problematic situations; include strategies like self-monitoring, self-reward, self-contracting, stimulus control and self-as-model.
Self-reward
Applying a reward or disincentive for performance; mental imagery is used.