Basic Marketing Chapter 9

Marketing Research
the process of planning, collecting, and analyzing data relevant to a marketing decision
Steps in Marketing research
Identify and formulate the problem/opportunity
Plan the research design and gather secondary data
Specify the sampling procedures
Collect primary data
Analyze the data
Prepare and present the report
Follow up
Secondary Data
data previously collected for any purpose other than the one at hand
Planning Research Design
specifies which research question must be answered, how and when the data will be gathered and how the data will be analyzed
Primary Data
info that is collected for the first time; used for solving the particular problem under investigation
Survey Research
the most popular technique for gathering primary data, in which a researcher interacts with people to obtain facts, opinions and attitudes
Observational research
method that relies on four types of observation; people watching people, people watching activity, machines watching people, and machines watching an activity
Ethnographic research
the study of human behavior in its natural context; involves observation of behavior and physical setting
method of gathering primary data in which the researcher alters one or more variables while observing the effects of those alterations on another variable
Probability Simple random Sample
every member of the population has a known and equal chance of selection
Probability Stratified Sample
population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as gender or age) then random samples are drawn from each group
Probability Cluster Sample
the population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as geographic areas); then a random sample of clusters is selected. The researcher then collects data from all the elements in the selected clusters of from a probability sample of elements within each selected cluster
Probability Systematic Sample
a list of the population is obtained (ex: all people with a checking account from bank x) and a skip interval is obtained by dividing the sample size by the population size. If the sample size is 100 and the bank has 1000 customers, then the skip interval is 10. the beginning number is randomly chose within the skip interval. If the beginning number is 8, then skip pattern would be 8,18,28…
Nonprobability Convenience Sample
the researcher selects the easiest population members from which to obtain information
Nonprobability Judgment sample
the researchers selection criteria are based on personal judgment that the elements chosen will likely give accurate information
Nonprobability Quota Sample
the researcher finds a prescribed number of people in several categories (ex: owners of large dogs versus owners of small dogs. respondents are not selected on probability sampling criteria
Nonprobability Snowball Sample
additional respondents are selected on the basis of referrals from the initial respondents. this method is used when a desired type of respondent is hard to find (ex persons who have taken round the world cruises in the last three years. this technique employs the old adage of “Birds of a feather flock together.”
Measurement error
occurs when there is a difference between the info desired by the researcher and the info provided by the measurement process
Sampling error
occurs when a sample somehow doesn’t represent the target population
frame error
occurs when a sample drawn from a population differs from the target population
Random error
occurs when the selected sample is an imperfect representation of the overall population
Collecting Data- Field service firm
a firm the specializes in interviewing respondents on a subcontracted basis
Analyzing data- Cross tabulation
method of analyzing data that lets the analyst look at the responses to one question in relation to the responses to one or more other questions
Impact of Internet on marketing research
1/5 of the population is online
in the US 71% is online
more than 90% of companies conduct online research
online data collection has the greatest potential for further growth
Focus Groups Advantages
Better participation rates
cost effectiveness
broad geographic scope
Scanner based marketing research
a system for gathering information from a single group of respondents by continuously monitoring the advertising, promotion, and pricing they are exposed to and the things they buy
Open ended question
an interview question that encourages an answer phrased in the respondents own words
Closed ended question
an interview question that asks the respondent to make a selection from a limited list of responses
Scaled response question
a closed-ended question designed to measure the intensity of a respondents answer
probability sample
every element in the population has a known statistical likelihood of being selected
non-probability sample
little or no attempt is made to get a representative cross section of the population