Attitudes – Marketing

attitude
consists of affective responses created by cognitive system, affective system, behavior; formed through integration process
learning hierarchies
idea that attitudes are more complex than they first appear
standard learning hierarchy
based on the cognitive information processing; cognition —> affect —> behavior
low-involvement hierarchy
based on behavioral learning processes; behavior —> affect —> cognition
experiential hierarchy
based on hedonic consumption; affect —> behavior —> cognition
salience, frequency, association
what are the three things that make attitudes accessible in memory?
compliance, identification, internalization
what are the three degrees of commitment related to the level of involvement with the attitude object?
product class, product form, brand, model, brand/model general situation, brand/model specific situation
what are the six concepts that vary in their levels of brand/model specificity?
attitude tracking studies
marketers can use measures of consumers’ attitudes to indicate the success of marketing strategies
balance theory
how a person perceives relations among different attitude objects, and how he alters his attitudes so that these remain constant
balance
the situation that exists when liking relations fit together harmoniously
person, attitude/object, some other person/object
what are the three components of attitude structures?
cognitive dissonance
when a consumer is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors, they will take action to resolve it
self-perception theory
we use observations of our own behavior to determine our attitudes
foot-in-the-door, low-ball, door-in-the-face
what are the three self-perception techniques?
foot-in-the-door technique
consumer is more likely to comply with a request if he has first agreed to comply with a smaller request
low-ball technique
person is asked for a small favor and is informed after agreeing to it that it will be very costly
door-in-the-face technique
person is first asked to do something extreme (which he refuses), then asked to do something smaller
key proposition
evaluations of salient beliefs cause overall attitude
belief strength, object-attribute linkages, belief evaluation
what are the three components of the Fishbein Model?
belief strength
part of the Fishbein Model, number of salient beliefs limited (7-9)
object-attribute linkages
part of the Fishbein Model, perceived probability of association between an object and its relative attributes
belief evaluation
part of the Fishbein Model, how favorable attribute is perceived; not fixed over time or across situations
classical conditioning
to pair the product with a liked stimulus; for example, we pair a car with a beautiful woman
exposure effect
the more a product is advertised and seen in stores, the more it will be generally be liked, even if consumers to do not develop any specific beliefs about the product
persuasion principles
the way a marketer structures his/her message determines how persuasive it will be
persuasion
an active attempt to change attitudes
reciprocity, scarcity, authority, consistency, liking, consensus
what are the six basic psychological principles that influence people to change their minds/comply with a request?
source effects
the same words by different people can have very different meanings
similarity, familiarity, likeability
what are the three components of source attractiveness?
similarity
component of source attractiveness, resemblance between the source and recipient of the message
familiarity
component of source attractiveness, knowledge of the source through repeated or prolonged exposure
likeability
component of source attractiveness, affection for the source resulting from physical appearance, behavior, or personal traits
compliance
to gain reward or avoid punishment
identification
to be similar to others
internalization
becomes part of one’s value system