ATI Vocab: Airway Management

artificial airway
any device inserted into the respiratory tract to facilitate breathing or secretion removal
alveolus
a small, air-containing saclike dilation (outpouching) in the distal portions of the lungs where gases are exchanged with pulmonary capillary blood (plural: alveoli)
atelectasis
airlessness or collapse of a lung, usually as a result of hypoventilation or obstruction
bronchiole
one of the subdivisions of the branched bronchial tree of the pulmonary system
bronchus
one of the larger passageways conveying air to and within the pulmonary system
chest physiotherapy
a method of mobilizing pulmonary secretions by positioning the patient’s head downward to incline the trachea below the affected area and then applying percussion and vibration techniques; often used synonymously with postural drainage, although that term technically refers to drainage by gravity without percussion and vibration
cuff
referring to a tracheostomy, a cuff is a soft, inflatable balloon encircling the distal end of a tracheostomy tube
endotracheal (ET) tube
a hollow tube inserted in the trachea to establish and maintain a patent airway
hypercapnia
an excess of carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperventilation
excessively rapid or deep breathing
hypoxemia
a diminished amount (reduced saturation) of oxygen in arterial blood
hypoxia
a reduced supply of oxygen to tissues below physiological levels despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood
intubation
the insertion of a tube into a body canal or cavity, as in endotracheal intubation
nasal trumpet
a tube inserted through the nose and the pharynx to establish and maintain airway patency; also called a nasopharyngeal airway
nasopharyngeal airway
a tube inserted through the nose and the pharynx to establish and maintain airway patency; also called a nasal trumpet
nasopharynx
the portion of the pharynx (the passage between the mouth and posterior nares and the larynx and esophagus) that lies above the level of the soft palate
nasotracheal tube
a hollow tube inserted through the nose into the trachea to establish and maintain a patent airway
obturator
a device used to guide the outer portion of a tracheostomy tube during insertion and removed immediately after the outer tube is in place
oropharyngeal airway
a tube inserted through the mouth and the pharynx to establish and maintain airway patency
oropharynx
the part of the pharynx between the soft palate and the upper edge of the epiglottis
percussion
a chest physiotherapy technique that involves rhythmic clapping of cupped hands over various segments of the lungs to mobilize secretions
pharynx
the throat; the cavity between the nasal passages and the mouth
postural drainage
a method of mobilizing pulmonary secretions by positioning the patient’s head downward to incline the trachea below the affected area and facilitating removal of secretions by gravity; often used synonymously with chest physiotherapy, although that term technically refers to incorporating vibration and percussion techniques along with positioning
respiratory distress
in general, difficulty breathing, which can include any aspect of respiration: ventilation, perfusion, or gas exchange, for example
suction
negative force used to withdraw air, fluid, or secretions out of a body cavity or part
suction catheter
a hollow, flexible tube passed into the airway to allow negative force to remove air, fluid, and secretions
trachea
the cartilaginous and membranous tube that descends from the larynx and branches into the right and left main bronchi
tracheostomy
an opening created by a surgical incision into the trachea for the purpose of establishing and maintaining a patent airway
vibration
a chest physiotherapy technique that involves applying pressure and a shaking movement of the hand to various areas over the lungs to mobilize pulmonary secretions
Yankauer suction catheter
a plastic or metal tube with a curve at the distal end to facilitate the removal of thick secretions during suctioning; also called a tonsil tip suction catheter