ATI- pain management

acute pain (uh-kewt pane)
transient discomfort or physical distress signaling actual or potential tissue damage and characterized by an identifiable cause, a short duration, resolution with healing, and few long-term emotional consequences
addiction (uh-dik-shun)
referring to drug addiction: a dependence phenomenon characterized by impaired control over drug use, compulsive use, continued use despite harm, and craving
adjuvant analgesia (aj-joo-vent an-uhl-jee-zee-uh)
a drug primarily used to treat something other than pain but also enhances pain relief
alternatives therapies (all-tur-nuh-tiv ther-uh-peez)
treatment approaches, used to replace conventional medical treatments, which are not currently considered part of conventional Western medicine
analgesia (an-uhl-jee-zee-uh)
absence of sensitivity to pain
analgesic (an-uhl-jee-zik)
substance used as a pain reliever; a drug that acts to reduce pain, including over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin as well as those available by prescription only
analgesic ceiling (an-uhl-jee-zik seel-ing)
the dose of a particular drug beyond which additional amounts of the same drug do not increase the analgesic effect
breakthrough pain
a flaring of moderate to severe pain despite therapeutic doses of analgesics
chronic pain
a feeling of physical distress or discomfort that persists over a long period of time and does not always have an identifiable cause
complimentary therapies
treatment approaches used to complement conventional medical treatments
dermatome (dur-muh-tome)
area of skin supplied with afferent nerve fibers from a single posterior spinal root
efficacy (ef-ik-uh-see)
the ability of a drug to achieve its desired effect
epidural anesthesia (ep-ih-dur-il an-es-thee-juh)
medication injected via a catheter into the space between the dura mater and the lining of the spinal canal to create a regional nerve block; also called spinal anesthesia
nociceptor
a peripheral sensory receptor for pain, stimulated by various types of tissue injury
narcotic
an outdated umbrella term that has been used to refer to opioids, controlled substances, illicit drugs, central nervous system depressants, strong analgesics, and drugs capable of causing physical dependence; opioid is the preferred term for the family of potent pharmacologic analgesics commonly referred to as narcotics
neuropathic pain
a type of pain usually felt as burning or tingling and resulting from direct stimulation of nerve tissue of the peripheral or central nervous system
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
any of a group of drugs that reduce pain, fever, and swelling (inflammation), including aspirin
opioid
one of a group of analgesics that act on higher centers of the brain and spinal cord to modify perceptions of moderate to severe pain
pain scale
assessment tool used to rate the severity of pain
pain treshold
the point at which a person feels pain
pain tolerance
the level of pain a person is willing to endure
paresthesia (par-ess-thee-zhuh)
an abnormal burning, prickling, tingling, or numbing sensation or hypersensitivity most often felt in the extremities and typically associated with neuropathic pain
patient- controlled analgesia
a drug delivery system that uses a computerized pump with a button the patient can press to deliver a dose of an analgesic through an intravenous catheter
physical dependence
an adaptive state characterized by a drug class-specific withdrawal syndrome induced with abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, or administration of an antagonist
placebo
a pharmacologically inert substance, such as a sugar pill or an injection of sterile water, given with the implication of effective treatment
progressive muscle relaxation
a systematic, stepwise approach to releasing tension in major muscle groups
somatic pain
generally well-localized pain that results from activation of peripheral pain receptors without injury to the peripheral nerve or central nervous system, such as musculoskeletal pain
spinal anesthesia (also called epidural anesthesia)
medication injected via a catheter into the space between the dura mater and the lining of the spinal canal to create a regional nerve block; also called epidural anesthesia
titration
the process of gradually adjusting the dose of a medication until the desired effect is achieved
tolerance
an adaptive state characterized by a decreasing response to repeated constant doses of a drug or the need for increasing doses to maintain a constant response
transmission
spreading of the pain “message” across the various nerve fibers linking the pain impulse to the brain
visceral pain
pain that results from activating the pain receptors of organs in the thoracic, pelvic, or abdominal cavities and is felt as a generalized aching or cramping sensation sometimes referred to the surface of the body
visual analog scale
a pain rating scale using a straight line; the left end of the line represents no pain, the right end represents the worst pain, and patients mark the place on the line that best represents the severity of their pain
WONG-BAKER FACES SCALE
a pain assessment tool that asks patients (often children) to select one of several faces indicating expressions that convey a range from no pain through the worst pain
World Health Organization (WHO)
the specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with health on an international level, functioning as a directing and coordinating authority on international health, and has developed a three-step pain “ladder” for cancer pain relief