ATI fundamentals ch 53 airway management

How much ox is in atmospheric air
21%
Fio2 means
fraction of inspired ox percentage ox pt receives
Interventions for low ox
-confirm placement of ox
-confirm fx of ox delivery system and that at correct setting
-place in fowlers
-encourage deep breathing
-stay with pt to decrease anxiety
Early and late SS of hypoxemia
early: tachypnea, tachycardia, restless, pale, elevated BP
late: confusion, cyanotic, bradypnea, bradycardia, hypotension, cardiac dysrhythmia
SS of hypercarbia (elevated CO2)
restless, hypertension, headache
Nasal Cannula
Fio2, rate, reasons to choose
Fio2: 24%- 44%
Rate: 1-6 L/min
Reason to choose: safe, simple, easy to apply, comfortable, fio2 varies, easily dislodged
Simple Face Mask
Fio2, rate, reasons to choose
Fio2: 40%-60%
Rate: 5 (MIN) -8 L/min
Reason to choose: easy to apply, simple, comfortable, humidifies, impaired eat drink and talk
Partial Rebreather Mask
Fio2, rate, reasons to choose
Fio2: 40%-70%
Rate: 6-11 L/min
Reason to choose: no valve so rebreathes up to 1/3 of exhaled air with RA, CO2 buildup, impaired eat drink and talk, make sure bag is inflated at all times
Non Rebreather Mask
Fio2, rate, reasons to choose
Fio2: 60%-80%
Rate: 10-15 L/min
Reason to choose: keep bag 2/3 full at all times, delivers highest o2 conc, one way valve to inhale 100% ox, impaired eat drink talk, assess hrly
Venturi Mask
Fio2, rate, reasons to choose
Fio2: 24%-60%
Rate: 4-12 L/min
Reason to choose: most precise ox conc, humidification not req, chronic lung disease, expensive, impaired eat drink talk, make sure free of kinks
Aerosol Mask
Fio2, rate, reasons to choose
Fi02: 24%-100%
Rate: AT LEAST 10 L/min
Reason to choose: face tent, tracheostomy collar, high humidification, face trauma, burns, humidifier req freq monitoring
Oxygen toxicity SS
on ox for more than 24-48 hrs, nonproductive cough, substernal pain, nasal stiffness, n/v, fatigue, headache, sore throat, hypobentilation
Wait how long after eating to obtain a sputum specimen
1-2 hrs avoids aspiration and emesis
Pressure for suctioning and how long
no higher than 120-150 mm Hg for no longer than 10-15 sec
For a tracheostomy pt what to keep at bedside
two extra trach tubes one the pt size and one one size smaller, obturator, oxygen source, suction, BVM (bad valve mask)
Trach care every how long
8 hrs to reduce infection and skin breakdown
Tracheostomy cuff pressure
14-20 mm Hg ck every 8 hrs