Apush Vocab Chapter 17

Andrew Carnegie
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
Homestead lockout
The 1892 lockout of workers at the Homestead Pennsylvania steel now after Andrew Carnegie refused to renew the union contract. Union supporters attack the guards hired to close them out and protect strikebreakers who have been employed by the mill, but the National Guard soon suppress this resistance and homestead, like other steel plans, became a nonunion Mill
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Vertical integration
The business model in which a corporation control all aspects of production from raw materials to package products. “Robber Barons” or industrial innovators such as Gustov Swift and Andrew Carnegie pioneered this business form at the end of the Civil war
assembly line
In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
Management revolution
An internal management structure adopted by many large, complex corporations that distinguish top executives from those responsible for day to day operations and departmentalized operations by function
predatory pricing
selling a product below cost to drive competitors out of the market
John D. Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history
Standard Oil Company
Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
Horizontal integration
A business concept inventedin the late 19th century to pressure competitors enforce rivals to merge their companies into a conglomerate. John D Rockefeller of standard oil pioneered this business model
Trust
A small group of associates that Holdstock from a group of combined firms, managing them as a single entity. Trust quickly evolved into other centralize business forms, but progressive critics continue to refer two giant firms like United States steel and standard oil as trusts
J.P. Morgan
An influential banker and businessman who bought and reorganized companies. His US Steel company would buy Carnegie steel and become the largest business in the world in 1901
US Steel
The largest steel company of the US, created by J.P. Morgan by merging Andrew Carnegie’s Carnegie Steel and several other steel companies together; at the time, the largest corporation in existence.
robber barons/industrial statesmen
an American capitalist of the latter part of the 19th century who became wealthy through exploitation (as of natural resources, governmental influence, or low wage scales)
department store
A store housing several departments under one roof
mail order catalogs
Marketing strategy developed in late 1800’s and early 1900’s. Brought consumer products to rural areas. Example: Sears and Roebuck, Montgomery Ward.
white/blue collar workers
white: worked in office
blue: manual labor
scientific management
A system of industrial management created and promoted in the early twentieth century by Frederick W. Taylor, emphasizing stopwatch efficiency to improve factory performance. The system gained immense popularity across the United States and Europe.
Frederick Taylor
American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants
deskilling
Reduction in the skill needed to do a job, due to technology
mass production
Process of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply
Ellis Island
An immigrant receiving station that opened in 1892, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed in if they were healthy
New South
After the Civil War, southerners promoted a new vision for a self-sufficient southern economy built on modern capitalist values, industrial growth, and improved transportation. Henry Grady played an important role.
new immigration
Between the 1850’s and 1880’s, more than 5 million immigrants cascaded into America from the “mother continent.” Starting in the 1880’s, the “new immigrants” (mainly Italians, Croats, Slovaks, Greeks, and Poles) came swarming into the USA. This influx of different nationalities caused problems at first, because they all spoke different languages and practiced different religions. They later; however, helped provide the unique cultural diversity that still exists today in the USA.
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
paper sons
Chinese immigrants claimed to be sons of Chinese American citizens, couldn’t tell if papers had been faked because of the San Francisco fire in 1906
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
A violent but ultimately unsuccessful interstate strike, which resulted in extensive property damage and many deaths. The first major interstate strike in us history. The panic of 1873 caused railroad lines to cut wages which caused workers to walk off the job and block the tracks- it eventually turned violent. Federal troops finally quelled the violence. After workers turned violent the public began to blame them for the looting and violence and they lost all sympathy
Henry George
He wrote Progress and Poverty in 1879, which made him famous as an opponent of the evils of modern capitalism.
National Grange of the Patrons
This organization better known as the Grange, was organized in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley; its objective was to enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities; the Grangers gradually raised their goals from individual self-improvement of the farmer’ collective plight
Greenback Labor Party
Political party devoted to improving the lives of laborers and raising inflation, reaching its high point in 1878 when it polled over a million votes and elected fourteen members of Congress.
producerism
The argument that real economic wealth is created by people who make their living by physical labor, and that merchants, lawyers, bankers, and other middlemen unfairly gain their wealth from such “producers.” In the late nineteenth century, pro-ducerism was a popular ideology among farmers, skilled tradesmen, and factory workers.
Granger Laws
Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
Terence Powderly
Leader of the Knights of Labor
Leonora Barry
She helped the knights recruit women.
Haymarket Square
At this location, in May of 1886, a series of events took place that resulted in four dead laborers and a bomb is thrown at the police and one dies then they start firing and six more die. After this, the Knights of Labor were no longer because they were considered to be involved with anarchy. Four are convicted and three are executed.
Farmers’ Alliance
In 1873 the Grangers founded this. Their goals promote social gatherings/education opportunities, organize against abuse, form cooperative/women played a significant role, and wanted political pressure. This later led to the founding of the populist party.
Colored Farmers’ Alliance
More than 1 million southern black farmers organized and shared complaints with poor white farmers. By 1890 membership numbered more than 250,000. The history of racial division in the South, made it hard for white and black farmers to work together in the same org.
Interstate Commerce Act
1887 law passed to regulate railroad and other interstate businesses
Wabash v. Illinois
1886 – Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
trade unions
Early labor organizations that brought together workers in the same trade, or job, to fight for better wages and working conditions
closed shop
A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
Samuel Gompers
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
pure and simple unionism
purposed by Samuel Gompers, president of the AFL; he proposed that argued that “the trade unions pure and simple are the natural organizations of the wage workers to secure their present and practical improvement and to achieve their final emancipation.”
collective bargaining
Process by which a union representing a group of workers negotiates with management for a contract