A message sent in 1917 by the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico, proposing a German- Mexican alliance and promising to help Mexico regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if the United States entered WWI.
Wilson’s Fourteen points
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Committee on Public Information
Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American’s around the war effort through propaganda
Two laws, enacted in 1917 and 1918, that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against US partcipation in WWI
Schenck v. United States
Supreme Court rules Espionage Acts and Sedition Act are legal; limits freedom of speech if the individual presents a direct threat to national security; didnt allow citizens to speak against gov’s actionas
War Industries Board
attempted to centralize production of war materials; ineffective due to American desire for laissez-faire government
National War Labor Board
A board that negotiated labor disputes and gave workers what they wanted to prevent strikes that would disrupt the war
Industrial Workers of the World
aka “Wobblies”; radical antiwar labor union whose members were prosecuted under the Espionage and Sedition Act
gave women the right to vote (1920)
League of Nations
An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace; encouraged by Pres. Wilson in his 14 points, U.S. never joined, weakened League
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty with Germany and the Allied powers which demanded huge reparations and took land from the Germans; meant to screw Germany over
Eugene V. Debs
labor leader arrested during the Pullman Strike (1894); a convert to socialism, he ran for president five times between 1900 and 1920. In 1920, he campaigned from prison where he was being held for opposition to American involvement in World War I; leader of IWW before imprisoned under Espionge Act of 1918
Herbert C. Hoover
the president when the Great Depression began and the person that most americans blamed for the hard times; head of Food Administration
Henry Cabot Lodge
a Republican who disagreed with the Versailles Treaty; chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee; disagreed with section that called for the League to protect a member who was being threatened; didnt want U.S. to join LoN
David Lloyd George
British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919; wanted to screw Germany and pushed for revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hurting Wilson’s 14 points
1917 overthrow of Russian gov. led by Vladimir Lenin; established a communist government and withdrew Russia from WWI
a period of general fear of communists
The region of the American South, extending roughly from North Carolina west to Oklahoma and Texas, where Protestant Fundamentalism and belief in literal interpretation of the Bible were traditionally strongest.
Immigration Act of 1924
AKA Johnson-Reed Act or “National Origins Act”; Federal law limiting number of immigrants admitted from any country to 2% of the amount of people from that country who were already living in the U.S. as of the census of 1890.
Eighteenth Amendment/ Volstead Act
prohibition; made the sale and production of alcohol illegal
Conservative beliefs in the Bible; literal translation, belief and application
experts studying workers to find the most efficient ways of doing things and then teaching people those techniques
United Negro Improvement Association
(UNIA) A group founded by Marcus Garvey to promote the settlement of American blacks in their own “African homeland”, “Back to Africa”, “Black is Beautiful”
A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General who rounded up many suspects who were thought to be un-American and socialistic; he helped to increase the Red Scare; he was nicknamed the “Fighting Quaker” until a bomb destroyed his home; he then had a nervous breakdown and became known as the “Quaking Fighter.”
Sacco & Vanzetti
Italian immigrants accused of robbery and murder, tried and convicted, executed using electrocution. it is believed that only one of them was guilty
United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion
John T. Scopes
substitute teacher put on trial in TN for teaching evolution, creationism v. evolution, found guilty and fined $100. appealed and fine was removed
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production
Charles A. Lindbergh
made the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis
Adkins v. Children’s Hospital
Supreme Court case that invalidated Muller v. Oregon, declaring that since women now had the vote, they were equal to men and undeserving of special protection
Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another
Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law
Raised tariff; meant to protect the surplus products of farmers; raised taxes from 27 % to 39 % for dutiable products
Teapot Dome scandal
symbol of government corruption; government oil reserves were secretly leased to oil companies in exchange for financial compensation
it sought to keep agricultural prices high by having the government buy surpluses to sell abroad, vetoed twice by Coolidge
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S.
Agricultural Marketing Act
gave $500 million to farm orginizations which bought farmers grain that couldnt be sold. didnt work because farmers produced more grain than ever
charged a high tax for imports leading to less trade between America and foreign countries
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929
shanty-towns that housed many who had lost everything. Shelters were built of old boxes and other discards.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
(RFC), Congress set up $2 billion. It made loans to major economic institutions such as banks, insurance companies and railroads.
Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act
1932 outlawed “yellow-dog” contracts & forbade federal courts to issue injunctions to restrict strikes, boycotts, peaceful picketting
group of WWI vets who marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
Warren G. Harding
president who called for a return to normalcy following WWI; laissez-faire
30th pres., took over when Harding died, Tried to clean up scandals, Business prospered and people’s wealth increased
Specialists in law, economics, and welfare, many young university professors, who advised President Franklin D. Roosevelt and helped develop the policies of the New Deal.
Franklin Roosevelt’s economic reform program designed to solve the problems of the Great Depression.
The first hundred days of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration, stretching from March 9 to June 16, 1933, when an unprecedented number of reform bills were passed by a Democratic Congress to launch the New Deal.
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act
Passed in 1933 by the “hundred days congress”, took the 750 million dollars of gold kept in US reserves and made it available for the creation of loans.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Part of “First” New Deal Program (1933-1935), employed young jobless men with government projects on work relief and environment
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
Part of “First” New Deal Program (1933-1935), prevented extreme competition, labor management disputes, and over-production; federally coordinated consensus of business leaders (Hugh Johnson) to regulate businesses (wages, limits, working conditions)
Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
New Deal farm agency that attempted to raise prices by paying farmers to reduce their production of crops and animals
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.(Western Kansas , Oklahoma, Northern Texas, , Eastern Colorado and New Mexico)
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Part of “First” New Deal Program (1933-1935), hydroelectric power to river valley; brought social and economic development to very poor area
Social Security Act
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Part of “Second” New Deal Programs (1935-1938), collective bargaining rights, closed shops permitted (where workers must join unions), outlawed anti-union tactics
Fair Labor Standards Act
1938 Act that set standard minimum wage, required over-time pay for time worked over 40 hours, and restricted the employment of minors.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
union organization of unskilled workers; broke away from the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1935 and rejoined it in 1955
President FDR’s failed 1937 attempt to increase the number of US Supreme Court Justices from 9 to 15 in order to save his 2nd New Deal programs from constitutional challenges
the belief the government must manage the economy by spending more money when in a recession and cutting spending when there is inflation
the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. Served from 1933 to 1945, he was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms
FDR’s Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
Harry L. Hopkins
Led the FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration) which replaced Hoover’s RFC by giving grants to the states to promote civil work projects, but the states preferred just to give the money to the men instead of creating jobs. He would also run the CWA and the WPA.
Father Charles Coughlin
a critic of the New Deal; created the National Union for Social Justice; wanted a monetary inflation and the nationalization of the banking system
Francis E. Townsend
A doctor and critic of FDR’s who proposed that everyone 60 years of age or older should get $200 a month as long as they spent it within 30 days.
Huey P. (Kingfish) Long
Louisiana politician and senator who criticized the new deal and set up share our wealth society. Later assassinated
Roosevelt’s secretary of labor (1993-1945); the first woman to serve as a federal Cabinet officer, she had a great influence on many New Deal programs, most significantly the Social Security Act.
Mary McLeod Bethune
United States educator who worked to improve race relations and educational opportunities for Black Americans
Robert F. Wagner
Member of the Roosevelt brain trust, brought back the NIRA, and had the Wagner Act which allowed the expansion of rights of workers by banning many “unfair labor practices” and guarantee labors the rights to form a union