APUSH Chapter 36 Test Review

Many Americans feared that the end of World War II would bring
a return of the Great Depresssiom
The Taft-Hartley Act delivered a major blow to labor by
outlawing closed (all-union) shops.
The passage of the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights) was partly motivated by
fear that the labor markets could not absorb millions of discharged veterans.
Which of these is NOT a true statement about the GI Bill?
Benefits were only available in the first three months after leaving the military.
The growth of organized labor in the post-World War II era was slowed by all of the following EXCEPT the
reduced number of women in the work force.
In an effort to forestall an economic downturn, the Truman administration did all of the following EXCEPT
continue wartime wage and price controls.
The post-World War II prosperity in the United States was most beneficial to
One striking consequence of the postwar economic boom was
a vast expansion of the homeowning middle class.
The prosperity of the postwar decades paved the way for all of the following social transformations EXCEPT
the migration of people to the North.
The majority of the new jobs created in the postwar era went to
“Planned obsolescence” was a marketing tool invented in the postwar era that
meant changing the design of goods frequently enough so that customers would replace older versions with newer ones
The long economic boom from World War II to about 1970 was especially fueled by
low energy costs.
Much of the prosperity of the 1950s and 1960s rested on the underpinnings of
colossal military budgets.
One sign of the stress that the widespread post-World War II geographic mobility placed on American families was the
popularity of advice books on child-rearing.
The dramatically reduced number of American farms and farmers in the postwar era was accompanied by
spectacular gains in American agricultural productivity and food growing.
Since 1945, population in the United States has grown most rapidly in the
Much of the Sunbelt’s new prosperity was based on its
tremendous influx of money from the federal government.
All of the following encouraged many post-1945 Americans to move to the suburbs EXCEPT
development of fuel-efficient automobiles.
Which of the following did NOT contribute to the rapid rise of suburbia in post-World War II America?
Urban environmental problems
By 1960, the proportion of Americans who lived in areas classified as metropolitan suburbs was approximately
one out of four (25 percent).
The continued growth of the suburbs led to
an increase in urban poverty.
Population distribution after World War II followed a pattern of
an urban-suburban segregation of blacks and whites in major metropolitan areas.
The refusal of the Federal Housing Authority to grant home loans to blacks contributed to
driving many blacks into public housing.
The huge postwar baby boom reached its peak in the
late 1950s.
Children of the baby boom
comprised a lucrative market for prepared baby food and other infant products.

grew into teenagers who spend $20 billion a year on clothes and music.

became the foundation of the youth movements of the 1960s and 1970s.

Before he was elected vice president of the United States in 1944, Harry S Truman had
served as all of the following EXCEPT
secretary of the navy.
Harry Truman possessed all of the following personal characteristics EXCEPT
willingness to admit mistakes.
In early 1945, the United States was extremely eager to secure the Soviet Union’s participation in the projected invasion of Japan because
American casualties were expected to be high if only Americans were involved.
The crucial origins of the Cold War lay in a fundamental disagreement between the United States and the Soviet Union over postwar arrangements in
Eastern Europe.
Which of the following were NOT among the key decisions made by Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill at the Yalta Conference?
The Soviets and Americans would militarily withdraw from Europe after a peace treaty was signed.
Despite their political and strategic differences, the United States and the Soviet Union
strongly resembled one another in 1945 in that they
had been largely isolated from world affairs and practiced an ideological missionary foreign policy.
Unlike the failed League of Nations, the new United Nations
was established in a spirit of cooperation before the war’s actual end.
One of the most significant structural differences between the old League of Nations and the new United Nations was that the U.N.
gave a veto in the powerful Security Council to the five Great Powers.
Which of the following was NOT among the early successes of the United Nations?
Stopping the spread of atomic weapons
The victorious World War II Allies quickly agreed that
Nazism should be destroyed in Germany and high-ranking Nazis should be tried and punished for war crimes.
When the Soviet Union denied the United States, Britain, and France access to Berlin in 1948, President Truman responded by
organizing a gigantic airlift of supplies to Berlin.
Soviet specialist George F. Kennan framed a coherent approach for America in the Cold War by advising a policy of
The fundamental idea of the containment doctrine, embraced by President Truman, was
Soviet expansion should be blocked by firm but not aggressive military and diplomatic strength.
The immediate crisis that prompted the announcement of the Truman Doctrine was related to the threat of a communist takeover in
Greece and Turkey.
Under the Truman Doctrine, the United States pledged to
support those who were resisting subjugation by communists.
Match each postwar American program below with its primary purpose.
Point four-
aid underdeveloped nations of Latin America, Asia, and Africa

resist Soviet military threat

Truman Doctrine -assist communist-threatened Greece and Turkey

Marshall Plan- promote economic recovery of Europe

A leading American theologian who urged a vigorous American foreign policy and a return to Christian foundations was
Reinhold Nieburh.
President Truman’s Marshall Plan called for
substantial financial assistance to rebuild Western Europe
The Marshall Plan succeeded in reviving Europe’s economy and thwarting the large internal Communist parties threatening to take over
Italy and France.
President Truman risked American access to Middle Eastern oil supplies when he
recognized the new Jewish state of Israel.
American membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization did all of the following for the country EXCEPT
reduce our defense expenditures, since we would get help from other countries.
The United States’ participation in NATO
marked a dramatic departure from traditional American isolationism.
Postwar Japan
had its military leaders tried for war crimes, as had occurred in Germany.
Which of the following was NOT true of the new Japanese government installed by General Douglas MacArthur in 1946?
It joined an American military alliance to prevent the spread of communism in East Asia.
Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalist government lost the Chinese civil war to the communists and Mao Ze-dong mainly because
Jiang lost the support and confidence of the Chinese people.
Republicans used the Communist victory in the Chinese civil war to claim that
pro-Communist elements in the Truman administration had prevented Jiang Jieshi from winning.
In an effort to detect communists within the federal government, President Harry Truman established the
Loyalty Review Board.
In 1948, many southern Democrats split from their party to support Governor J. Strom Thurmond because
President Truman took a strong stand in favor of civil rights.
Even by the end of the 1948 presidential campaign, almost everyone expected Governor Thomas Dewey to win because
President Truman seemed unpopular and the Democrats had split three ways.
President Truman’s domestic legislative plan was dubbed the
Fair Deal.
President Truman’s action upon hearing of the invasion of South Korea illustrated his commitment to a foreign policy of
NSC-68 called for
a massive increase in military spending.
The NSC-68 document reflected the American belief
in the limitless capabilities of the American economy and society.
President Harry Truman relieved General Douglas MacArthur from command of United Nations troops in Korea when
MacArthur began to openly criticize Truman’s orders on military policy.