APUSH: Chapter 23 Vocabulary

Agricultural Marketing Act
act passed by Herbert Hoover that authorized the lending of federal money to farmer’s cooperatives to buy crops to keep them from the over-saturated market; program hampered by lack of adequate federal financial support
“Black Tuesday”
a consumer panic in the stock market on October 29, 1929, that is said to allegedly be the main cause of the Great Depression; this crash continued past the 29th well into November, when the DJIA fell from 381 to 198.7
Bonus Army
group of WWI vets that marched to DC in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their government war bonuses in cash
Clifford Odets
an American playwright, screenwriter, socialist, and social protester; wrote “Waiting for Letty” and “Golden Boy” about unions, also wrote “Awake and Sing!”
Dust Bowl
region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages
Erskine Caldwell
wrote Tobacco Road to highlight the realities of the Depression
Frank Capra
film director during the late 1930s and early 40s; directed Mr. Deeds Goes to Town and It’s a Wonderful Life
Tariff of 1930
also known as the Hawley-Smooth Tariff; encouraged to buy goods made in US and raise the tariff on all imported goods but it didn’t work because other countries raised US tariffs in their countries
Hindenburg
a German dirigible that crashed in Lakehurst, NJ, in 1937 after a transatlantic voyage; broadcasted on radio by Herbert Morrison, “Oh the humanity!”
Hoovervilles
shanty towns that the unemployed built in the cities during the early years of the Depression; the name given to them shows that the people blamed Hoover directly for the Depression
John Dos Passos
a novelist who wrote of WWI and its impacts on art and civilization; he was a conservative pessimist and had disillusion to post-war urban America
John Steinbeck
American novelist who focused on the harsh realities of Americans especially during the 30s i.e. Grapes of Wrath; won a Nobel Prize for his work in the 60s
Life Magazine
photographic journal starting in 1936; had largest reader group in US; it had some articles on politics and economics, but it was known for photos of sports and theater; natural landscapes and public projects
“Okies”
the name commonly given to refugees from the Great Plains seeking to escape the Dust Bowl
Orson Welles
an actor, director, producer, writer; created one of the most renowned radio broadcasts of all time “The War of the Worlds
Popular Front
an alliance between the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals formed for the May 1936 French election; it was largely successful, increasing the Communists in parliament from 1 to 72, and the Socialists up to 146, making them the largest party in France
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
agency established in 1932 to provide emergency relief to large businesses, insurance companies, and banks; inevitably failed
Richard Wright
20th century writer best known for his novels dealing with the black experience in the United States; two of his best known works are Black Boy and Native Son; the first African American writer to win a broad response from the reading public
Scottsboro Case
nine black teenagers were taken off a freight train in a small town near Scottsboro, Alabama, and were arrested for vagrancy and disorder; later, two white women accused the boys of raping them, and although there was significant evidence to suggest the women were lying, an all-white jury convicted all of the boys and eight were sentenced to death; however, with the Supreme Court’s decision to overturn the convictions in 1932 and with the support of an organization associated with the Communist Party, the International Labor Defense, all of the defenders eventually gained their freedom
Soap Operas
daytime radio shows sponsored by laundry detergents that provided an escape from the difficult times of the Depression; one of the more popular forms of entertainment during the 30s