APUSH Chapter 23 Key Terms

“Black Tuesday”
October 29, 1929: the day the stock market failed, causing the market to remain depressed for over four years. In a way the beginning of the Great Depression.
Dust Bowl
A drought beginning in 1930 that caused an area from Texas to the Dakotas to be known as the “Dust Bowl;” rainfall decreased, heat increased, farming regions were turned into deserts.
“Okies”
The farm economy produced more food than Americans could buy, causing the price of farm goods to plummet. Many farming families (known as “Okies” since many were from Oklahoma) left their homes in search of work.
Scottsboro Case
Nine black teenagers were arrested for vagrancy- two white women who had been on the train with them accused them of rape, even though there was no medical evidence. However, eight of them were sentenced to death. The NAACP and International Labor Defense helped, and the men gained their freedom.
Clifford Odets
Wrote “Waiting for Lefty” (1935), which demonstrated the appeal of political radicalism.
Erskine Caldwell
Wrote “Tobacco Road,” (1932) which was an expose of poverty in the rural South
John Dos Passos
His U.S.A. trilogy (1930-1936) attacked modern capitalism.
Richard Wright
African American novelist who exposed the struggles of urban residents in “Native Son” (1940).
Orson Welles
Broadcast “War of the Worlds,” which many people thought was real, in 1938.
Hindenburg
German dirigible that crashed in 1937; the event was broadcast live on the radio and caused an enormous national reaction.
Frank Capra
Director who provided a social message in his comedies
Life Magazine
Became one of the most successful magazines in American history – best known for stunning photos of events, landscapes, and public projects.
Popular Front
Coalition of “antifascist” groups such as the American Communist Party – criticized American capitalism. Offered an escape from the alienation it had experienced in the 1920s – attracted many young Americans. It appeared free, but was under strict supervision of the Soviet Union.
John Steinbeck
His novels portrayed the struggles of migrant workers in California.
Agricultural Marketing Act
Proposed by Herbert Hoover in 1929: it established the first major government program to help farmers maintain prices.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
1930: Increased protection on 75 farm products. Did not ultimately help farmers significantly.
Hoovervilles
Another word for shantytowns that unemployed people made on the outsides of towns – showed declining public support for Herbert Hoover.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Government agency whose purpose was to give federal loans to banks, railroads, and businesses who needed it- did not make an impact on the Depression.
Bonus Army
Bonus Expeditionary Force: more than 20,000 veterans who marched in to Washington to demand that a bonus be paid to those who had served in World War I. This resulted in more than 100 protestors being injured by police, causing people to hate Hoover even more.