APUSH Chapter 23

Agricultural Marketing Act
Proposed by Hoover; established the first major government program to help farmers maintain prices. A federally sponsored Farm Board would make loans to national marketing cooperatives or establish cooperation to buy surpluses and thus raise prices.
Black Tuesday
Oct. 19 – 16 Million stocks traded; industrial index dropped by 43 points; stocks-worthless; market continued to decline in next 4 years
Bonus Army
20,000 members of the Bonus Expeditionary force marched into Washington, built crude camps around the city, and promised to stay until congress approved legislation to pay the bonus. Some departed after Congress refused but others remained. This happened because Congress had approved the payment of a 1,000 dollar bonus to those who had served in WWI and to pan starting in 1945 but many wanted it immediately especially during depression era.
Clifford Odets
“Waiting for Lefty” (1935); Playwright who provided an explicit demonstration of the appeal of political radicalism
Dust Bowl
Large area of agricultural settlement in Great Plains in South and West; had a huge natural disaster; worst drought in years; rainfall decline while heat increased; experienced “Black Blizzards” Texas – South Dakota
Erskine Caldwell
Tobacco Road; an expose of poverty in the rural south; long-running broadway play
Frank Capra
“It’s a Wonderful Life” Most successful and famous director in Hollywood. Most of his fils expressed a vision of society and of politics, that resonated with the concerns of millions of Americans.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
Increased production on seventy-five farm products; did not significantly help American farmers, actually harmed agricultural economy by stifling exports of food. Protect farmers from international competition.
Hindenburg
A German dirigible crashed in Lakehurst, New Jersey in 1937 after a transatlantic voyage; produced an enormous national reaction largely because of the live radio account by a broadcaster
Hoovervilles
Shanty towns built by the homeless during the Great Depression
John Dos Passos
U.S.A. Trilogy attacked modern capitalism outright
John Steinbeck
Novelist portrayed the trials of workers and migrants in California
Life Magazine
Photographic journal; one of the most successful magazines in American history and largest readership. d=Devoted some attention to politics and to economic conditions but mostly popular for its photograph of sporting and theatre events.
“Okies”
Hundreds of thousands of families from the Dust Bowl that traveled west, but to find no better condition there.
Orson Welles
An actor/directory who broadcast “War of the Worlds” over air and created panic
Reconstruction Finance Corp.
Government agency whose whose purpose was to provide federal loans to troubled banks, railroads, and other businesses. Operated on large scale. Failed to deal directly with problems. Supported projects that could only pay for themselves
Richard Wright
A major African American novelist, exposed the plight of residents of the urban ghetto in Native Son.
Scottsboro Case
Nine black Alabama teenagers taken off freight train and arrested for vagrancy and disorder. Later two white women who had been riding the train accused them of rape. With practically no evidence an all white jury quickly convicted all nine boys and eight of them to death. Supreme court overruled the convictions inn 1932 and began new trials. NAACP helped publicize the events.
Soap Operas
Staples of television programming especially to women alone in house.