the 1892 lockout of workers at the homestead, pennsylvania, steel mill after carnegie refused to renew the union contract. union supporters attacked the guards hired to close them out and protect strikebreakers who had been employed by the mill, but the national guard soon suppresssed this resisitance and homestead, like other steel plants, became a non-union mill.
an internal management structure adopted by many large, complex corporations that distinguished top executives from those responsible for day to day operations and departmentalized operations by function.
a buisness model in which a corporation controlled all aspects of production from raw materials to packaged products. “robber barons” or industrial innovators such as gustavus swift and carnegie pioneered this business form at the end of the civil war
a business concept invented in the late 19th century to pressure competitors and force rivals to merge their companies into a conglomerate. rockefeller of standard oil pioneered this business model
a small group of associates that hold stock from a group of combined firms, managing them as a single entity. trusts quickly evolved into other centralized business forms, but progressive critics continued to refer to giant firms like the united states steel and standard oil as “trusts”
the elimination of skilled labor under a new system of mechanized manufacturing, in which workers completed discrete, small scale tasks rather than crafting an entire product. with deskilling, employers found they could pay workers less and replace them more easily.
a phrase coined by henry ford, who helped to invent a system of mass production of goods based on assembly of standardized parts. this system addompanied the continued deskilling of industrial labor.
a system of organizing work developed by Frederick W Taylor in the late 19th century. it was designed to coax maximum output from the individual worker, increase efficiency, and reduce production costs.
chinese exclusion act
the 1882 law that barred chinese laborers from entering the US. it continued in effect until the 1940s
the great RR strike of 1877
a nationwide strike of thousands of RR workers and labor allies, who protested the growing power of RR corporations and the steep wage cuts imposed by RR managers amid a severe economic depression that had begun in 1873
greenback labor party
a national political movement calling on the govt to increase the money supply in order to assist borrowers and foster economic growth; also called for greater regulation of corporations amd laws enforcing an 8 hr workday
the arguement that real economic wealth is created by workers who make their living by physical labor, such as farmers and craftsmen, and that merchants, lawyers, bankers, amd other middlemen unfairly gain their wealth from such “producers”
economic regulatory laws passed in some midwestern states in the late 1870s, trigged by pressure from farmers and the greenback labor party
knights of labor
the 1st mass labor organization created among americas working class. founded in 1869 amd peaking in strength in the mid 1880s, the knights of labor attempted to bridge boundaries of ethnicity, gender, ideology, race, and occupation to build a “unviersal brotherhood” of all workers.
the advocacy of a stateless society achieved bynrevolutionary means. feared for their views, anarchists became scape-goats for the 1886 haymarket square bombing
the may 4, 1886, conflict in chicago in which both workers and policemen were killed or wounded during a labor demonstration called by local anarchists. the incident created a backlash against all labor organizations, including the knights of labor
a rural movement founded in texas during the depression of the 1870s that spread across the plains states and the south. the farmers alliance advocated cooperative stores and exchanges that would circumvent middlemen, and it called for greater govt aid to farmers and stricter regulation of RRs
interstate commerce act
an 1887 act that created the interstate commerce commission, a federal regulatory agency designed to oversee the RR industry and prevent collusion and unfair rates
a workplace in which a job seeker had to be a union member to gain employment. the closed shop was advocated by craft unions as a method of keeping out lower wage workers and strengthening the unions bargening position with employers
american federation of labor
organization created by samuel gompers in 1886 that coordinated the activitys of craft unions and called for direct negotiation with employers in order to achieve benefits for skilled workers
chicago cattle dealer, pioneered vertical integration
john d rockefeller
influentual radical thinker, wrote “progress and poverty” (1879) (best seller). warned that americans had been too optmistic about the impact of RR and manufacturing. believed that emerging industrial order meant permanent poverty. proposed a federal “single tax” on landholdings, did not win widespread support
leader of knights of labor. warned that the abuse of liquor robbed as many workers of their wages as did ruthless employers
full time womens organizer for knights of labor. irish american widow who was forced into factorys after her husbands death. became a labor advocate out of horror at the conditions she experienced on the job. investigated and exposed widespread evidence of sexual harassment
leader of american federation of labor. dutch-jewish cigar maker whose family emigrated to NY in 1863. believed the knights relied too much on electoral politics