Industrialization in Europe and America
revolutionized (changed) the economy; damaged workers health, and the environments, polluted air and water
management revolution
created the structure adopted by large corporations
Gustavus Swift
He invented the assembly line; VERTICAL INTEGRATION: a company controls all aspects of production from raw material to the finished good; PREDATORY PRICING: Lower prices below production costs and wait till competitors went under then raise them again. Invented assembly lines.
John Rockefeller
king of petroleum; HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION: combining separate companies into one with distinct entities “conglomerate”
Ladies Home Journal
First magazine to reach 1 mill subscribers
White Collar Workers
Professional positions in corporations
Blue Collar Workers
Labored with their hands; little freedom to negotiate
Middle Managers
direct the flow of goods, labor and information throughout the enterprise.
“traveling salesman” door to door salesman
“Married” Woman’s / Children’s jobs
took mens dead-end jobs, clerking, stenographers, and typist, nurses, teachers, office work, or sales. Low paid unskilled factory work.
Alexander Graham Bell
invented telephone
system of mechanized manufacturing “mass production”
subdivided manufacturing
Scientific Management
reduce costs by assigning individuals to tasks; ran under a stop watch and were paid more if they met the requirements. Assembly lines. NOT SUCCESSFUL; proved to be expensive and workers stubbornly resisted.
Three Social Classes
Wealthy Elite, Middle Class, Struggling Class; Brought on debate of equality.
Child Labor
widespread in the south
immigrants fled from famine took jobs at low pay in america. Jewish influence has grown, sought economic opportunity
California Gold Rush
Brought a mass of Chinese immigrants in the 1840’s
Burlingame Treaty
Between United States and China: opened the way for increasing numbers to emigrate.
Barring Chinese laborers from entering the United States.
Great Railroad Strike (1877)
Henry George
warned that Americans had been too optimistic about the impact of railroads and manufacturing,
National Grange
farm families joined together to promote community and agriculture
Greenback-Labor Party
dismissed middlemen, bankers, lawyers, and investors as idlers who lived off the sweat of people who worked with their hands.
Granger laws
laws set forth by farmers
Knights of Labor: Leader Terence Posderly
secret society of garment workers. Believed ordinary people needed control over the enterprises in which they worked. Set up shops owned by employees, “cooperative commonwealth” excluded Chinese immigrants
the revolutionary advocacy of a stateless society
Haymarket Square
arranged as a protest meeting for anarchist; bombing killed several policeman; damaged American labor movement; Suspected links to anarchism with Knights
Farmers’ Alliance
rural movement;
seek to represent interest of ordinary people
The Hatch Act
provided federal funding for agriculture research and education
Interstate Commerce Act
counteracted a Supreme Court decision “Wabash v. Illinois which struck down states’ authority to regulate railroads. Created the INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION (ICC) investigated shipping rates
closed shop
all jobs reserved for union members
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Samuel Gompers (leader) believed that Knights relied on electoral politics; Focused on
pure and simple unionism
Pure: refers to membership; Simple: reffered to goals that benefited workers