1. All of the following gave rise to a more dynamic, market-oriented, national economy in early nineteenth-century America:
push west in search of cheap land, a vast number of European immigrants settling in the cities, newly invented machinery, and better roads, faster steamboats, further-reaching canals, and tentacle-stretching railroads.
2. Pioneering Americans marooned by geography
became ill informed and individualistic in their attitudes.
3. In early-nineteenth-century America, the urban population was
growing at an unprecedented rate.
4. The dramatic growth of American cities between 1800 and 1860 resulted in
unsanitary conditions in many communities.
5. “Ecological imperialism” can best be described as
the aggressive exploitation of the West’s bounty.
6. George Catlin advocated the preservation of nature as
a national policy.
7. The influx of immigrants to the United States
tripled, then quadrupled, in the 1840s and 1850s.
8. Ireland’s great export in the 1840s was
9. The Irish immigrants to early nineteenth-century America were mostly
Roman Catholics and hated the British.
10. When the Irish flocked to the United States in the 1840s, they stayed in the larger seaboard cities because
they were too poor to move west and buy land.
11. When the “famine Irish” came to America,
they mostly remained in the port cities of the Northeast.
12. Native-born Protestant Americans distrusted and resented the Irish mostly because
these immigrants were Roman Catholic.
13. German immigrants in the early nineteenth century tended
to preserve their own language and culture.
14. German immigrants to the United States came to
escape economic hardships and autocratic government.
15. When German immigrants came to the United States,
they prospered with astonishing ease.
16. Those who were frightened by the rapid influx of Irish immigrants
organized the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner.
17. The sentiment of fear and opposition to open immigration was called nativism.
18. Native-born Americans feared that Catholic immigrants to the United States would
“establish” the Catholic Church at the expense of Protestantism.
19. Immigrants coming to the United States before 1860 helped
to fuel economic expansion.
20. The “Father of the Factory System” in the United States was
21. Eli Whitney was instrumental in the invention of
the cotton gin.
22. Most of the cotton produced in the American South after the invention of the cotton gin was
sold to England.
23. The American phase of the industrial revolution first blossomed with
24. As a result of the development of the cotton gin,
slavery revived and expanded.
25. The underlying basis for modern mass production was
the use of interchangeable parts.
26. The early factory system distributed its benefits
mostly to the owners.
27. Match each individual below with the correct invention.
Samuel Morse -telegraph Cyrus McCormick – reaper· Elias Howe- sewing machine · Robert Fulton- steamboat
28. The American work force in the early nineteenth century was
characterized bysubstantial employment of women and children in factories.
29. One reason that the lot of adult wage earners improved was
the enfranchisement of the laboring man.
30. In the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, the supreme court of Massachusetts ruled that
labor unions were not illegal conspiracies.
31. The “cult of domesticity” glorified
the traditional role of women as homemakers.
32. Early-nineteenth-century American families were
33. One of the goals of the child-centered family of the 1800s was
to raise independent individuals.
34. The effect of early-nineteenth-century industrialization on the trans-Allegheny West was
to encourage specialized, cash-crop agriculture.
35. With the development of cash-crop agriculture in the trans-Allegheny West, farmers quickly faced
36. In the 1790’s a major transportation project linking the East to the trans-Allegheny West was
the Lancaster Turnpike.
37. Western road building faced all of the following problems except
competition from canals.
38. The major application for steamboats transporting freight and passengers in the United States was
on western and southern rivers.
39. The “canal era” of American history began with
the construction of the Erie Canal in New York.
40. Construction of the Erie Canal
forced some New England farmers to move or change occupations.
41. Most early railroads in the United States
were built in the North.
42. Compared with canals, railroads
could be built almost anywhere.
43. In the new continental economy,
each region specialized in a particular economic activity: the South grew cotton for export; the West grew grains and livestock to feed eastern factory workers; and the East made machines and textiles for the other two regions.
44. As a result of the transportation revolution,
each region in the nation specialized in a particular type of economic activity.
45. In general, steamboats
tended to bind the West and South together, while canals and railroads connected West to East.
46. All of the following were legal questions raised as a result of the new market economy:
how tightly should patents pretect inventions? should the government regulate monopolies? can a democratic government still support slavery? who should own these new technologies?
47. As the new continental market economy grew,
the home came to be viewed as a refuge from the workday world.
48. A major economic consequence of the transportation and marketing revolutions was
a steady improvement in average wages and standards of living.
49. America’s early-nineteenth-century population was
notable for its restlessness.
50. Factors encouraging the growth of immigration rates in the first half of the nineteenth century included
the rapid growth rate of the European population.
51. The growth of industry and the factory system in the United States was
slowed by the scarcity of labor.
52. The Northeast became the center of early-nineteenth-century American industry because
it had abundant water power.
53. The growth of early-nineteenth-century American manufacturing was
stimulated by theWar of 1812.
54. By 1850, America’s factory system was
55. The concentration of capital for investment in large-scale enterprises in the early nineteenth century was
promoted by the wider acceptance of the principle of limited liability.
56. The turnpikes, canals, and steamboats as new transportation links generally encouraged
lowering of freight rates.
57. Clipper ships and the Pony Express had in common