APUSH Ch. 24 Vocab

Great Depression
a severe, world wide economic crisis which lasted from the end of 1929 to the outbreak of World War II
Recession
an economic slump; a depression; a decline
Panic
sudden mass fear and anxiety over anticipated events
Stock market
A general term used to describe all transactions involving the buying and selling of stock shares issued by a company
Market activity
a period of time where the market is really active with lots of transactions going on
Black Thursday
October 24, 1929; almost 13 million shares sold that day alone
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929
Speculators
Someone who invests in a risky venture in the hope of making a large profit.
Bankrupt
someone who has insufficient assets to cover their debts
Default
loss resulting from failure of a debt to be paid
Federal Reserve System
The country’s central banking system, which is responsible for
the nation’s monetary policy by regulating the supply of money and interest rates
Discount rate
the rate of interest set by the Federal Reserve that member banks are charged when they borrow money through the Federal Reserve System
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
sometimes known under its official name, the Tariff Act of 1930)] was an act signed into law on June 17, 1930, that raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels.
Gross national product
The total value of goods and services, including income received from abroad, produced by the residents of a country within a specific time period, usually one year
Horatio Alger
myth that hard work will move up your standard of living.
Invisible scar
the deep wound left by having to go on relief and not having enough money each week to provide for your family.
Demographic trends
marriage rate dropped from 10.14 per thousand persons in 1929 to 7.87 per thousand in 1932. The divorce rate decreased. From 1930-1933, birthrate dropped from 21.3 per thousand to 18.4 per thousand (-14%).
US vs. One Package of Japanese Pessaries (1936)
Doctors got the right to prescribe birth control for married couples everywhere except the Catholic states of Massachusetts and Connecticut.
Margaret Sanger
Public-health nurse in the 1910s in the New York City slums. She encouraged the availability and acceptance of birth control and work with both the working and middle class. She helped establish professionally staffed birth control clinics and received the American Medical Association’s endorsement of contraception in 1937.
Hobo
tramps. About 250,000 young people who hit the road in hard times to find small jobs.
Sisters of the road
female tramps. They took to the road to find any small jobs.
Popular culture
provided escapes for people who were suffering. Movies and radio were popular.
Production Code Administration
self-censorship of movies.
Frank Capra
a very influential filmmaker during the 1930s. He was an Italian immigrant. His films spoke to American idealism – there was a virtuous small town hero against corrupt urban shysters.
Southern Tenant Farmers’ Union
founded in 1934. One of the few Southern groups that welcomed both blacks and whites. It could do little to reform the corrupt agricultural system because it was based on such deep economic and racial inequalities.
John Steinbeck
wrote The Grapes of Wrath in 1939. It tells the story of the Joads, an Okie family, who work as migratory farm workers. It showed the many devastating hardships the family went through.
Okies
people who migrated from the Dust Bowl to the west (usually California) because their land had dried up and become barren. Many became migratory farm workers.
Repatriation
the process of returning a person back to one’s place of origin or citizenship.
Cesar Chavez
was a Mexican American farm worker, labor leader, and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association
Agricultural Marketing Act
signed in 1929; gave the federal govt an unprecedented role in stabilizing agriculture .
Moratorium
a legally authorized period of delay in the performance of a legal obligation or the payment of a debt
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Hoover’s most innovative program to aid the economy; approved by congress in Jan. 1932; first federal institution created to intervene directly in the economy during peacetime.
Hoovervilles
many families lost their homes because they could not pay their mortgages. These people had no choice but to seek alternative forms of shelter. Hoovervilles, named after President Hoover, who was blamed for the problems that led to the depression, sprung up throughout the United States.
Hoover flags
were pants pockets that had been turned inside out, symbolizing a lack of money.
Hoover blankets
newspapers that homeless people used to protect themselves from the cold.
Farm Holiday Association
barricaded local roads, and dumped milk, vegetables, and other farm produce in the dirt rather than accept prices that would not cover their costs.
Communist Party
a tiny organization with only 12,000 members
Bonus Army
a ragtag group of about 15,000 unemployed World War I veterans
Election of 1932
marked the turning point in American politics- the emergence of a Democratic coalition that would help to shape national politics for the next four decades.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
New York; won the nomination by capitalizing on that state’s reputation for innovative relief and unemployment programs. won the election for president of 1932