APUSH Ch. 23 Key Terms

Agricultural Marketing Act
established the first major government program to help farmers maintain prices, but it did not ultimately help American farmers significantly
“Black Tuesday”
October 29th, 1929; the day the stock market crashed
Bonus Army
a group of 20,000 veterans who demand that their bonus from WWI be paid immediately; they marched into Washington & promised to stay until Congress approved legislation to pay the bonus; Hoover ordered the U.S. Army to take care of the situation, & their brutal treatment of the veterans served as the final blow to Hoover’s already battered political standing
Clifford Odets
a playwright who provided an explicit demonstration of the appeal of political radicalism in Waiting for Lefty
Dust Bowl
a large area of the nation, stretching north from Texas into the Dakotas, that suffered one of the worst droughts in American history
Erskine Caldwell
wrote Tobacco Road, an expose of poverty in the rural South
Frank Capra
a director who provided a muted social message in several of his comedies–including Mr. Smith Goes to Washington–which celebrated the virtues of the small town & the decency of the common people in contrast to the selfish, corrupt values of the city & the urban rich
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
increased protection on 75 farm products in an effort to protect farmers; however this actually harmed the agricultural economy by stifling exports of food
Hindenburg
a German blimp that crashed in flames after a transatlantic voyage; it produced an enormous national reaction largely because it was broadcast live on the radio
Hoovervilles
shantytowns that unemployed people established on the outskirts of cities
John Dos Passos
his trilogy, U.S.A., attacked modern capitalism outright
John Steinbeck
wrote The Grapes of Wrath, which offered a harsh portrait of the exploitive features of agrarian life in the West & a tribute to the endurance of his characters–and to the spirit of community they represented
Life Magazine
a publication that became extremely popular & was best known for its stunning photographs of sporting & theater events, natural landscapes, and impressive public projects
“Okies”
hundreds of thousands of families who traveled to California & other states, where they found conditions little better than those they had left
Orson Welles
an actor/director who broadcast “War of the Worlds,” which created panic among millions of people who believed for a while that the fictional events it described were real
Popular Front
a broad coalition of “antifascist” groups on the left, of which the most important was the American Communist Party; did much to enhance the reputation & influence of the Communist Party; helped mobilize writers, artists, & intellectuals behind a pattern of social criticism
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
a government agency whose purpose was to provide federal loans to troubled banks, railroads, & other business; made funds available to local governments to support public works projects & assist relief efforts; failed to produce any significant recovery for the economy
Richard Wright
a major African American novelist who exposed the plight of residents of the urban ghetto in Native Son
Scottsboro Case
an event in which nine black youths were falsely charged with raping two white women on a train in Alabama; attracted increasing national attention–the Communist Party & the NAACP assisted the youths; all of them eventually gained their freedom but the last of the defendants did not leave prison until 1950
Soap Operas
enormously popular radio shows primarily enjoyed by women