Appendix B

Enable the transmission of data over public or private networks
Telecommunication system
Communications system created by linking TWO or MORE devices and establishing a STANDARD methodology in which they can communicate
Network
Local area network
LAN
Metropolitan area network
MAN
Wide area network
WAN
Ex. of this type of network: Peer-to-peer, Client/server
Architecture
Ex. of this type of network: Bus, Star, Ring, Hybrid, Wireless
Topology
Ex. of this type of network: Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Protocols
Ex. of this type of network: Fiber-optic, Coaxial, Twisted-pair
Media
4 Network Basics: TAMP
Topology, Architecture, Media, Protocol
Architecture: Any network WITHOUT central file SERVER and in which ALL computers in the network have ACCESS to the PUBLIC files located on all other workstations
Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
Architecture: Ex. Internet, Cables
P2P
Client/ Server Network: Computer that is designed to REQUEST info from a SERVER
Client
Client/ Server Network: Computer that is dedicated to PROVIDING info in response to EXTERNAL REQUESTS
Server
Architecture: Model for applications in which the BULK of the BACK-END processing takes place on a SERVER, while the FRONT-END processing is handled by the CLIENTS
Client/ Server Network
Client/ Server Network: Operating system that RUNS network, STEERING info b/w computers & MANAGING security and users
Network Operating System
Client/ Server Network: When sending computer divides message into # of efficiently sized units called packets, each of which contains ADDRESS of destination computer
Packet Switching
Client/ Server Network: Intelligent connecting device that EXAMINES each packet of data it receives & then DECIDES which way to send it onward toward its destination
Router
Geometric arrangement of actual physical organization of computers & other network devices in a network
Topology
Topology: 5 types (BSWHR)
Bus, Star, Wireless, Hybrid, Ring
Topology: All devices connected to central CABLE called the_____ or backbone. Inexpensive & easy to install for small networks.
Bus
Topology: All devices connected to central DEVICE called the HUB. Easy to install & manage, but BOTTLENECKS can occur because all data must pass through a hub.
Star
Topology: All devices connected to ONE ANOTHER in shape of closed loop so that each device is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it. Expensive & difficult to install but they offer HIGH SPEED and can span LARGE DISTANCES.
Ring
Topology: Devices connected BY SIGNALS b/w access points & wireless transmitters w/in a limited range
Wireless
Topology: Groups of STAR configured WORKSTATIONS connected to linear BUS backbone CABLE, combining characteristics of BUS & STAR topologies
Hybrids
Standard that specifies format of data & rules to be followed during transmission
Protocol
Physical and data layer technology for LAN networking
Ethernet
Provides technical foundation for public Internet & for large numbers of private network
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
TCP/ IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TCP/ IP’s Layer: Serves as window for users & application processes to access network services
Application layer
TCP/ IP’s Layer: Handles end-to-end packet transportation
Transport layer
TCP/ IP’s Layer: Formats data into packets, adds header containing packet sequence & address of receiving device, & specifies services required from network
Internet layer
TCP/ IP’s Layer: Places data packets on network for transmission
Network Interface Layer
Allows files containing text, programs, graphics, numerical data, & so on to be downloaded off or uploaded into network; Sending docs
File transfer protocol (FTP)
Email protocol; TCP/ IP’s own messaging system for email
Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP)
Web protocol; Allows Web browsers & servers to send & receive Web pages
Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)
Allows management of networked nodes to be managed from single point
Simple network management Protocol (SNMP)
OSI Model 7 layers: APSTNDP
Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link, Physical
Uses TCP/IP technology to transmit voice calls over long-distance telephone lines
Voice over IP (VoIP)
Refers to various types of media used to carry signal b/w computers
Network transmission media
Transmission material manufactured so that signals will be confined to narrow path & will behave predictably
Wire Media
Natural parts of the Earth’s environment that can be used as physical paths to carry electrical signals
Wireless Media
Media: Type of cable composed of 4 or more copper wires twisted around each other w/in plastic sheath
Twisted pair cable
Media: Cable that can carry wide range of frequencies w/ low signal loss
Coaxial cable
Media: Technology associated w/ transmission of info as light impulses along glass wire or fiber; Used for long distance service
Fiber-optic cable
Card that plugs into back( or side) of computers & lets them send & receive messages from other computers
Network Interface Card (NIC)
Medium to connect all computers together
Cable
Hardware to perform traffic control
Hub (switch or router)
Set of communication rules to make sure everyone speaks same language
Protocol