APM- The Schools of Management Thought (The History of Management)

Each of the schools of management thought are based on
different assumptions about human beings and the organizations for which they work
formal study of management began
late in the 19th century
Management classification have resulted in the identification of
management schools
5 management schools (CBQ/SSC)
(1) the Classical school,
(2) the Behavioral school,
(3) the Quantitative or management
science school,
(4) the Systems school,
(5) the Contingency school.
The formal study of management is largely a twentieth-century phenomenon, and to some degree the relatively large number of management schools of thought reflect
a lack of Consensus among Management Scholars about basic questions of theory and practice
Classical School
Managing Workers and Organizations more Efficiently.
Classical Schools are (SBA)
Scientific Management 1880s
Bureaucratic Management 1920s
Administrative Management 1940s
Behavioral School
Understanding Human Behavior in the Organization.
Behavioral Schools are (HB)
Human Relations 1930s
Behavioural Science 1950s
Quantitative Schools are (MOM)
Management Science 1940s
Operations Management 1940s
Management Information Systems 1950s—1970s
System Schools
Understanding the Organization as a System that Transforms Inputs into Outputs while in Constant Interaction with its Environment.
System Schools is
Open & Closed System 1950s
Contingency School
Applying Management Principles and Processes as Dictated by the Unique Characteristics of each Situation.
Contingency School is
Situational – actions and
approaches depend on the
The Classical School, Oldest formal school of management thought. Generally concerns ways to
manage work and organizations more efficiently
Scientific Management
Management Decisions were often Arbitrary and Workers often Worked at an Intentionally Slow Pace.
There was little in the way of Systematic Management and workers and management were often in conflict
Scientific management was introduced in an attempt to
create a mental revolution in the workplace
Scientific management can be defined as
the systematic study of work methods in order to improve efficiency.
Scientific management introduced by
Frederick W. Taylor
Main proponent of Scientific management
To improve Efficiency
Other major contributors of the Scientific management
were Frank & Lillian Gilbreth, and Henry Gantt
1. Scientific management has several major principles
1. It calls for the application of the Scientific Method to work in order to determine the best method for accomplishing each Task.
2. It suggests that Workers should be Scientifically selected based on their Qualifications and Trained to perform their jobs in the optimal manner.
3. It advocates Genuine Cooperation between Workers and Management based on Mutual Self-interest.
2. Scientific management has several major principles
4. It suggests that management should take Complete responsibility for planning the work and that workers’ Primary responsibility should be Implementing Management’s Plans.
Other important characteristics of scientific management include
Scientific development of difficult but fair performance standards and the implementation of a Pay-for-Performance Incentive Plan based on Work Standards.
Administrative management focuses on
the Management Process and Principles of Management.
Administrative management contrasts with
scientific management
In Contrast: Scientific management, deals largely with Jobs and Work at the Individual Level of Analysis, while
Administrative management provides a more General Theory of Management.
Henri Fayol is the major contributor to this school of management thought
Administrative management
Fayol was a management practitioner who brought his experience to bear on the subject
Management functions and principles
He argued that Management was a Universal Process Consisting of Functions, which he termed Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Coordinating, and Controlling (POCCC)
Henri Fayol
Fayol believed that all managers performed these functions and that the functions distinguished management as
a separate discipline of study apart from accounting, finance, and production.
Fayol also presented fourteen principles of management, which included these five (DAUCST)
1. Division of work
2. Authority and Responsibility
3. Unity of Command & Direction
4. Centralization
5. Subordinate Initiative
6. Team spirit
Administrative Management has been criticized as as being
Rigid and Inflexible
Many of Fayol’s principles of management, when applied with flexibility are still considered