APES Waste Management

1. What is the significance of Fresh Kills? (5th edition Case Study)

What is “e-waste” and why is it a growing environmental problem? (6th edition Case Study)

Fresh Kills had a lot of waste and is now reclaimed because waste from Sept.11 disaster.
2. How have attitudes towards wastes changed? Explain each of the following:
Dilute and disperse

Concentrate and contain

Waste out of place

Dilute and disperse
-when there was little waste, diluting and putting waste into the environment was enough to treat it.

Concentrate and Contain
-containing harmful materials were done but containment was not always successful and had problems.

Waste out of place
-there will be no waste because it would not be produced or its reused.

3. Are we running out of space for landfills? Explain. What does NIMBY stand for?
No, we’re not running out of place, its just hard to cite new places.

NIMBY means “not in my backyard” meaning nobody wants a landfill near themselves.

4. How could zero waste be reached?

Explain how waste would be viewed and treated differently using the concept of industrial ecology.

Zero waste could be achieved with taxation,proper waste management, etc.

Waste should be viewed as a resource for another part. In industrial ecology, an industrial society will function like an normal ecosystem. (elephants waste could be a resource for a dung beetle)

5. What is Integrated Waste Management (IWM)?
What is meant by source reduction?
What is meant by the waste stream?
IWM is a set of management alternatives that include reuse,source reduction,recycling,composting,landfill, and incineration
*waste stream* is waste produced
Source reduction is activities designed to reduce the volume or toxicity of waste … and product design
6. Can recycling really work?

What are some of the arguments for and against recycling?

What is the role of buying recycled in IWM?

It can work, because its financially viable (recycled materials use less energy to produce)

By buying recycled, it reduces the urban waste stream.

7. Can human waste be recycled? What is its role in IWM?
It can be recycled (except there are a lot of chemicals in the sewage system and can be harmful)

As oil declines (which is necessary to make fertilizer) recycling human waste may be more financially viable

8. What is materials management? What is its role in IWM?
materials management is emphasizing sustainable use of materials.
Reduce waste production by
-eliminating subsidies for mining natural resources
-incentives for green building
-financial penalties
9. What solid waste material comprises the largest percentage of the solid waste stream in the US?
Paper products
10. Briefly describe these methods of solid waste management:
on-site disposal


incineration Why don’t we use incinerators around here?

open dumps

on-site disposal
-garbage is put into the sewage system, which is put into sewage treatment plants.

-organic matter decompose to soil like material. Only problem is that you have to separate organic waste from other waste.

-burn to reduce waste
-can release dioxin,nitrogen,and sulfur

open dumps
-breeding ground for pests

11. What is a sanitary landfill? What is leachate?

What law regulates the landfill location and management?

What factors must be taken into account in siting a landfill?

What environmental and human health risks are associated with landfills?

How do pollutants enter the environment from landfills? How is pollution in a landfill monitored?

Sanitary landfill-concentrates and contains refuse without creating nonsense. Covering waste makes it sanitary, limiting access to insects,rodents,etc. and also refuse like gas

leachate-noxious mineralized liquid capable of transporting bacterial pollutants.

Laws are RCRA and CERACLA

Health risks include contaminated water

Pollution enters the environment from leaching.
Pollution is monitors by periodically taking water and gas samples from monitoring wells.

12. Read A Closer Look- Environmental Justice. In the study of hazardous waste facilities in Los Angeles County, what were shown to be the dominant factors in the location of the facilities?
The dominant factor is resistance of people,value of land, and existence of industrial activity
13. What are hazardous wastes?

**What are the 4 categories of hazardous waste?

What are HHW?

*How extensive is the problem of uncontrolled hazardous waste disposal?

hazardous waste is hazardous chemical waste

4 categories
-toxic to people and living things
-ignite when exposed to air
-extremely corrosive waste
-unstable and explode and toxic gases created with water

HHW is Household Hazardous Waste

14. What happened at Love Canal?
On a canal that became a waste desposal site, people put homes and one day all the chemicals leaked out.
15. What roles do RCRA and CERCLA have in regards to hazardous waste disposal? What is Superfund?
-identification of hazardous wastes and their life cycles
-issue guidelines and responsibilities to those manufactured the waste
-required strigent monitoring

-defined policies of release of hazardous substances (ex. landfill regulations)
-a fund to cleanup the worst abandoned hazardous cites (Superfund)
-banned substances
-expanded superfunds

16. Briefly describe each of the conventional methods of disposal for hazardous wastes: What environmental disruptions are caused by each technology?
secure landfill
land application
deep well disposal
(what is the connection with fracking?)*
secure landfill
-recover leachate
-confine waste
-can harm water sources
land application
-use waste materials to surface soils
-not suitable for inorganic substances that are biopersistant
deep well disposal
-dispose it were its isolated from aquifers
17. What are some of the alternatives to land disposal of hazardous wastes?
source reduction
recycling and resource recovery
18. What problems are associated with ocean dumping of solid and hazardous wastes? What is the fate of plastics that are dumped into the ocean?
-harms marine enviornment
-harm fisheries

palstic accumulate inconvegent currents

19. Briefly explain some of the approaches to pollution prevention.
-purchasing proper amount of materials
-substitute toxic materials
etc. etc..
20. How can we make recycling a financially viable industry?
-landfills get expensive
-less energy