APES chapter 11

A steady diet of high calorie, low nutrition fast food may lead to
I. Overnutrition
II. Malnutrition
III. Undernutrition
a. I only
b. II only
c. III only
d. I and II
e. I, II, and III
I and II only
Industrial Agriculture has many benefits. Which of the following is NOT a benefit associated with industrial
agriculture?
a. The ratio of energy input to calorie output is low
b. Larger food production per hectare
c. Monoculture can be more efficient
d. Economy of scale can make the food less expensive
e. None of the above
The ratio of energy input to calorie output is low
Typically, most of the energy subsidies in modern agriculture are in the form of
a. Solar power
b. Hydroelectric power
c. Nuclear power
d. Fossil fuels
e. Manual labor
Fossil Fuels
Mechanization of agriculture is advantageous for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
a. Machines encourage the growth of several types of plants in a single farm
b. There is an economic advantage if fuel prices are low
c. There is an economic advantage if cost of labor is high
d. Staple crops such as beans and corn are more economically harvestable
e. Mechanization allows farms to take advantage of economies of scale
Machines encourage the growth of several types of plants in a single farm
Synthetic fertilizers have many advantages over traditional “organic” animal waste fertilizers. These include
all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Ease of application
b. Highly adjustable nutrient content
c. Bioavailability of nutrients
d. Lack of nutrient runoff problems
e. Highly concentrated when produced
Lack of nutrient runoff problems
Monocropping has a number of disadvantages. These include all of the following EXCEPT
a. Erosion due to exposure of large areas of soil during planting
b. Nutrition and pesticide needs should be similar throughout a single crop
c. Pests are more likely to attack a monocrop due to the high concentration
d. Loss of habitat for natural pest predators
e. Reduction of productivity due to loss of nutrient-rich topsoil
Nutrition and pesticide needs should be similar throughout a single crop
The US accounts for about what percent of worldwide pesticide use?
a. 20
b. 33
c. 50
d. 80
e. 95
33
After many years of applying the selective pesticide provironex, a farmer notices that the applications seem
less effective. This is likely due to
a. The fact that provironex is fat soluble and has been bioaccumulating
b. Provironex is selective, so other pests are filling the niche from the exterminated ones
c. Provironex is persistent, and the farmer should apply less for better results
d. The target species has begun to evolve resistance
e. Provironex is a wide spectrum pesticide that needs to be fine tuned for the target species
the target species has begun to evolve resistance
9. Scientists have inserted a gene for the production of vitamin A into rice. This practice of changing the genetic
structure of agricultural products to improve desirable traits is known as
a. Genetic Engineering
b. Transmodification
c. Selective Breeding
d. Natural Selection
e. Animal Husbandry
Genetic Engineering
Which areas of the world are most susceptible to desertification?
a. Existing deserts
b. Humid equatorial regions
c. Temporal Chaparral
d. Areas adjacent to the poles
e. Areas adjacent to existing deserts
Areas adjacent to existing deserts
No till farming will most likely to lead to all of the following EXCEPT
a. Decrease in the use of herbicides
b. Decrease in wind erosion
c. Decrease in water erosion
d. Regeneration of natural soil horizons
e. Reduction in CO2 emissions from the soil
Decrease in the use of herbicides
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is likely to use all of the following techniques EXCEPT
a. Crop rotation
b. Intercropping
c. Planting herbicide resistant crops
d. Habitat creation for pest predators
e. Increased use of traditional pesticides
Increased use of traditional pesticides
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is especially successful in developing countries because
a. The availability of high quality pesticides in developing countries is spotty at best
b. High-input industrial farming is not feasible because farmers lack financial resources
c. IPM resembles traditional farming techniques so closely
d. Developed nations often offer subsidies to farmers using IPM techniques
e. IPM has never been successful in developing countries
High-input industrial farming is not feasible because farmers lack financial resources
In the US, organic farming is regulated by
a. OFPA
b. FIFRA
c. FSA
d. CERCLA
e. TSDA
OFPA
In order for organic farmers to make a profit (and thus be economically sustainable)
a. Manure (organic fertilizer) must be found in abundance in close proximity to the farm
b. The government must continue to provide an “organic” subsidy
c. Conventional farmers must pay a tax to subsidize the organic farmers
d. Consumers must be willing to pay higher costs associated with organic produce
e. Organic farmers cannot make a profit
Consumers must be willing to pay higher costs associated with organic produce
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) make meat more economical, but may have some
negative environmental impacts. These include all of the following EXCEPT
a. High concentrations of animal waste
b. Increase in nutrients in stormwater runoff
c. Increase in sediments in stormwater runoff
d. Increased use of land area over other types of animal farming
e. Increase in strains of antibiotic resistant microorganisms
Increased use of land area over other types of animal farming
Marine fisheries are particularly susceptible to the tragedy of the commons because
a. Fish are r-Selectors that experience boom and bust cycles
b. Fish are highly migratory, so they don’t belong to any one nation
c. Pollution is highest in areas with high fish populations
d. International waters are governed by antiquated nautical law
e. Fishery collapse is viewed by many countries as a sign that they are managing populations
properly
Fish are highly migratory, so they don’t belong to any one nation
Many scientists argue that worldwide fisheries are declining, yet the worldwide number of fish harvested
continues to increase. What would best explain this discrepancy?
a. The scientists are being overly cautious
b. Fisheries are collapsing only in the areas that the scientists are studying
c. More people are reporting the fish that they catch
d. Only apex predator populations are collapsing
e. An increase in fishing technology and increased fishing effort are leading to an increase in
catch despite the declining populations
An increase in fishing technology and increased fishing effort are leading to an increase in
catch despite the declining populations
Most coastal states require shrimping vessels to install T.E.D.s (Turtle Excluder Devices), which allow sea
turtles to pass safely through the net, while still allowing the net to catch shrimp. This is an example of
a. A bycatch reduction device
b. State execution of the Endangered Species Act (ESA)
c. The swampbuster provision of the Farm Bill of 1990
d. Managing fisheries for collapse
e. State execution of the Sustainable Fisheries Act
A bycatch reduction device
According to the Environmental Defense Fund, which of the following fish are “best” choices for
sustainability?
I. wild Alaskan salmon
II. Chilean sea bass
III. farmed rainbow trout
a. I
b. II
c. I and II
d. II and III
e. I and III
I and III
What is the general relationship between meat consumption and affluence
a. More affluent nations tend to consume more meat products
b. More affluent nations tend to be net exporters of meat products
c. Less affluent nations tend to consume more meat because poultry are so easy to raise
d. Less affluent nations tend to consume less meat because meat is thought of as a trading
commodity
e. There is no apparent relationship between meat consumption and affluence
More affluent nations tend to consume more meat products
Worldwide, the largest component of the human diet is
a. Grain products
b. Meat products
c. Dairy products
d. Raw and processed sugars
e. Fruits and vegetables
Grain products
Meat consumption in the US is generally about ____ % higher than the rest of the world
a. 75%
b. 100%
c. 125%
d. 150%
e. 200%
150%
Per capita grain production worldwide increased dramatically until about ____. It has leveled since then and
may actually be ____ slightly
a. 1950; increasing
b. 1950; decreasing
c. 1985; increasing
d. 1985; decreasing
e. 2000, increasing
1985; decreasing
The average food item in the US travels ____ km from harvest to table
a. 500
b. 1000
c. 1500
d. 2000
e. 2500
2000
Use Figure 11-1. Based on the above recommended daily allowances, which of the following categorical
groups would require the largest caloric intake?
a. Adolescent males
b. Adolescent females
c. Infant males
d. Infant females
e. Young men
Young men
. Use Figure 11-1. In general, for females, caloric requirements ____ to age ____, then ____ until death.
a. Increase; 20; decrease
b. Decrease; 20; increase
c. Increase; 30; level off
d. Increase; 30; decrease
e. Decrease; 15; level off
Increase; 20; decrease
. Use Figure 11-2. By about how much did aquaculture increase from 1980 to 2000?
a. 10 million metric tons
b. 15 million metric tons
c. 30 million metric tons
d. 50 million metric tons
e. 80 million metric tons
30 million metric tons
Use Figure 11-2. Between which years did global fish production increase the most?
a. 1950 and 1960
b. 1960 and 1970
c. 1970 and 1980
d. 1990 and 2000
e. Global fish production did not increase between any of these years.
1960 and 1970
Use Figure 11-3. If you input a total of 3,000,000 calories of energy into small-scale corn farming, about how
many calories of food will you produce?
a. 300,000
b. 600,000
c. 3,000,000
d. 6,000,000
e. 15,000,000
15,000,000