APES CH 30: Waste Management

Describe the early method waste management of “dilute and disperse”
Waste production in the US was relatively small, so there was disposal of waste into rivers
Compare “dilute and disperse” to the contemporary method of “concentrate and contain”
“D&D” aim to control waste by spreading it over a large area, lowering concentration. “C&C” attempts to control waste by only dumping it in a small area. Although the concentration of waste will increase , less area will be effected.
Define the concept of “industrial ecology” and how it will be essential in the future
The study of relationships among industrial systems and their links to natural systems. Without an understanding of how these systems interact with nature, a sustainable future would be impossible.
Define Integrated Waste Management (IWM)
A set of management alternatives that includes: reuse, source reduction, recycling, composting, landfill, and incineration.
What are the 3 R’s?
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
1. Using inexpensive reusable bags
2. Using recycle bins provided by grocers for used paper and plastic
3. Limit consumption of packaged products
What are the goals of “materials management”?
1. Eliminate subsidies for extraction of virgin materials such as minerals, oil, and timber
2. Establish “green building” incentives that encourage the use of recycled-content materials and products in new construction
3. Assess financial penalties for production that uses poor materials management practices.
4. Provide financial incentives for industrial practices and products that benefit the environment by enhancing sustainability
5. Increase the number of new jobs in the technology of reuse and recycling of resources
Which product comprises the largest percentage of waste dumped in the US?
paper
What is the best way to dispose of infectious medical waste?
Incineration is the surest way to manage infectious medical waste.
Composting
biochemical process in which organic materials decompose to a rich, soil-like material
What are the pros and cons of composting?
PRO: creative waste management solution
CON: having to separate organic material from other waste
What are the pros and cons of incineration?
PRO: reduces volume of waste greatly, can be used to generate electricity
CON: releases many toxins into the air and filtering these emissions is expensive
What are the problems associated with an open dump?
They are a health hazard, a breeding ground for pests, pollute air, groundwater, and surface water
What is a sanitary landfill and how is it accomplished?
concentrates and contains waste so it does not pose a risk to public. They compact waste into the smallest possible chunks and then cover waste with compacted soil to reduce interaction with the environment.
What is a leachate?
A noxious, mineralized liquid capable of transporting bacterial pollutants.
How is a sanitary landfill selected? What things need to be considered?
Topography, location of groundwater table, amount of precipitation, type of soil and rock, and location of disposal zone in surface water and ground water flow system
How can pollutants enter the environment from sanitary landfills?
1. Wind can transport toxins to other areas
2. Heavy metals can be retained in soil
3. Surface runoff can transport leachate into streams and rivers
What are the federal mandates for sanitary landfills?
1. Landfills must be lined
2. Landfill operators must monitor ground water for contamination
3. Must have a leachate collection system in place
What are the sources of hazardous waste in the US?
chemical product industries and buildings destroyed by events like fires and hurricanes
Summarize the story of Love Canal
infamous hazard waste site. Hooker Chem. Company used the canal to dump waste from 1920-1952. The company sold it to the city of Niagra Falls for $1
What does the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) do?
sets the standards for the disposal of hazardous substances and holds companies responsible for cleaning up hazardous waste sites,
What does SARA do?
Requires that certain industries report all releases of hazardous materials
What is a secure landfill?
Designed to confine the waste to a particular location, control the leachate that drains from the waste, collect and treat it, and detect possible leaks
Define land application and describe how it is used?
Intentional application of waste materials to the surface soil; method of treatment for certain biodegradable industrial waste
Define biopersistence
how long the material remains in the biosphere
Define microbial breakdown
process of waste material decomposed by microflora
Define surface impoundment
Natural topographic depressions and human-made excavations to hold hazardous liquid in
Why is surface impoundment controversial?
prone to seepage which causes pollution of soil and groundwater. air pollution caused by evaporation from the surface impoundment
what are some problems associated with deep-well disposal?
Injects waste into deep wells. limited # of suitable sites with limited space for disposal of waste
What is one of the biggest risks associated with land disposal methods?
pollution of groundwater
What are some solutions to land disposal of hazardous waste?
source reduction, recycling and resource recovery, treatment and incineration
What are some of the issues created by ocean dumping?
kills organisms, inhibits their development, reduces the amount of carbon dioxide available, and destroys human manner habits