AP US Government Chapter 13

22nd amendment
passed in 1951, the amendment that limits presidents to two terms of office.
impeachment
The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for “Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.”
25th amendment
Passed in 1951, this amendment permits the vice president to become acting president if both the vice president and the president’s cabinet determine that the president is disabled. The amendment also outlines how a recuperated president can reclaim the job.
Cabinet
A group of presidential advisers not mentioned int eh constitution, although every president has had one. Today the cabinet is composed of 14 secretaries and the attorney general
National security council
An office created in 1947 to coordinate the president’s foreign and military policy advisers. Its formal members are the president, vice president, secretary of state, and secretary of defense, and it is managed by the president’s national security assistant.
Council of economic advisers
a three-member body appointed bu the president to advise the president on the economic policy
Office of Management and Budget
An office that grew out of the Bureau of the Budget, created in 1921, consisting of a handful of political appointees and hundreds of skilled professionals. The Office of Management and Budget performs both managerial and budgetary functions.
veto
the constitutional power of the president to send a bill back to congress with reasons for rejecting it. A 2-3rds vote in each house can override a veto
pocket veto
a veto taking place when congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it.
presidential coattails
these occur when voters cast their ballots for congressional candidates of the president’s party because they support the president. Recent studies show that few races are won this way
War Powers Resolution
A law passed in 1973 in reaction to American fighting in Vietnam and Cambodia that requires presidents to consult with Congress whenever possible prior to using military force and to withdraw forces after 60 days unless Congress declares war or grants an extension. Presidents view the resolution as unconstitutional.
legislative veto
the ability of congress to override a presidential decision. Although the War Powers Resolution asserts this authority, there is reason to believe that, if challenged, the Supreme Court would find the legislative veto in violation of the doctrine of separation of powers.
crisis
a sudden, unpredictable, and potentially dangerous event requiring the president to play the role of crisis manager
Watergate
the events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment
To qualify for president, someone must be
35 years old, a natural-born citizen, and have lived in the US for 14 years
caucus
or primary, CLOSED democratic and republican conventions
frontloading
early primaries and caucuses more important
Buckley v. Valeo
a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States upheld federal limits on campaign contributions and ruled that spending money to influence elections is a form of constitutionally protected free speech. The court also stated candidates can give unlimited amounts of money to their own campaigns.
soft money
political contributions made in such a way as to avoid the United States regulations for federal election campaigns (as by contributions to a political action committee)
electoral college
winner take all, # of senators and representatives, not in constitution
20th amendment
president takes office Jan. 20
12th amendment
pres and vp run together
Pres. National Security Const. Powers
commander-in-chief, make treaties, nominate ambassadors (with 2/3 senate approval)
Pres. Legislative Const. Powers
state of the union, recommend legislation, convene both houses, adjourn congress, veto
Pres. Admin. Const. Powers
take care laws executed, nom. officials, fill admin. vacancies, request opinions from officials
Pres. Judical Const. Powers
grant reprieves, nominate judges
VP Powers
wait, break ties in senate, preside over senate
Clinton V. NY
Banned presidential use of line item veto
NSC
National Security Council. A committee in the executive branch of government that advises the president on foreign and military and national security
CEA
inform president on economic policy
OMB
Office of Management and Budget; prepares the federal budget and monitors spending
President’s Informal Powers
bully pulpit, crisis manager, leader of free world, morale builder, party leader, recruiter, resolve domestic problem, terminate relationships with countries, make executive agreements
War Powers Act
Notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops; had to gain congress’ approval to stay longer than 90 days; designed to curtail President’s power
Congress checks
military power, treaties with a 2/3 majority vote
Teddy Roosevelt and Wilson
first free world leaders
bureaucracy controlled by
presidential appointments
cabinet
15 secretaries + attorney general, not in constitution
EOP
OMB, NSC, and CEA
Kennedy Style
open
GW Bush
closed
Clinton
hands-on
Truman
specific
Presidential veto overridden by
2/3 of both houses
Presidents do not
bribe
High public approval ratings
make congress more likely to work with the president
President’s emergency powers
martial law, confiscate property, set prices and wages, suspend habeus corpus, ration, control communications
1976 National Emergency Act
congress can declare a crisis, renew every 6 months
strong president
required but centralized power is feared
president can’t get things done
other policy makers have too much power
in the 20th century
1/3 presidents not elected
10% of the time
non elected president in office
most presidents serve
1 term
order of succession
pres –> vp –> speaker –> pro tempore –> cabinent –> sec of state