a general term for any treatment process; in psychology and psychiatry, __________ refers to a variety of psychological and biomedical techniques aimed at dealing with mental disorders or coping with problems of living.
therapies based on psychological principles (rather than on the biomedical approach); often called “psychotherapy.”
treatments that focus on altering the brain , especially with drugs, psychosurgery, or electroconvulsive therapy.
psychotherapies in which the therapist helps patients/clients understand (gain insight into) their problems.
psychotherapies that focus on communicating and verbalizing emotions and motives to understand their problems.
the form of psychodynamic therapy developed by Sigmund Freud. The goal of psychoanalysis is to release conflicts and memories from the unconscious.
analysis of transference
the Freudian technique of analyzing and interpreting the patient’s relationship with the therapist, based on the assumption that this relationship mirrors unresolved conflicts in the patient’s past.
neo-freudian psychodynamic therapies
therapies for mental disorder that were developed by psychodynamic theorists who embraced some of Freud’s ideas but disagreed with others.
treatment techniques based on the assumption that people have a tendency for positive growth and self-actualization, which may be blocked by an unhealthy environment that can include negative self-evaluation and criticism from others.
a humanistic approach to treatment developed by Carl Rogers, emphasizing an individual’s tendency for healthy psychological growth through self-actualization.
reflection of feeling
Carl Rogers’s technique of paraphrasing the clients’ words, attempting to capture the emotional tone expressed.
emphasizes rational thinking (as opposed to subjective emotion, motivation, or repressed conflicts) as the key to treating mental disorder.
any form of psychotherapy done with more than one client/patient a a time. __________ is often done from a humanistic perspective.
self-help support groups
groups, such as AA, that provide social support and an opportunity for sharing ideas about dealing with common problems. Such groups are typically organized and run by laypersons, rather than professional therapists.
another term for behavior therapy
any form of psychotherapy based on the principles of behavioral learning, especially operant conditioning and classical conditioning.
a behavioral therapy technique in which anxiety is extinguished by exposing the patient to an anxiety-provoking stimulus.
a form of desensitization therapy in which the patient directly confronts the anxiety-provoking stimulus (as opposed to imagining the stimulus).
as a classical conditioning procedure, aversive counter-conditioning involves presenting individuals with an attractive stimulus paired with unpleasant (aversive) stimulation in order to condition revulsion.
an operant conditioning approach to changing behavior by altering the consequences, especially rewards and punishments, of behavior.
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
a social-learning technique in which a therapist demonstrates and encourages a client to imitate a desired behavior.
a newer form of psychotherapy that combines the techniques of cognitive therapy with those of behavioral therapy.
rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
Albert Ellis’s brand of cognitive therapy, based on the idea that irrational thoughts and behaviors are the cause of mental disorders.
a person who gives the speaker feedback in such forms as nodding, paraphrasing, maintaining an expression that shows interest, and asking questions for clarification.
the prescribed use of drugs to help treat symptoms of mental illness ostensibly to ensure that individuals are more receptive to talk therapies.
medicines that diminish psychotic symptoms, usually by their effect on the dopamine pathways in the brain.
an incurable disorder of motor control, especially involving muscles of the face and head, resulting from long-term use of anti-psychotic drugs.
medicines that affect depression, usually by their effect on the serotonin and/or norepinephrine pathways in the brain.
a simple chemical compound that is highly effective in dampening the extreme mood swings of bipolar disorder
a category of drugs that includes the barbiturates and benzodiazepines, drugs that diminish feelings of anxiety.
drugs that normally increase activity level by encouraging communication among neurons in the brain. Stimulants, however, have been found to suppress activity level in persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
attention-deficit disorder (hyperactivity, ADHD)
a common problem in children who have difficulty controlling their behavior and focusing their attention.
the general term for surgical intervention in the brain to treat psychological disorders
electroconvulsive therapist (ECT)
a treatment used primarily for depression and involving the application of an electric current to the head, producing a generalized seizure. sometimes called “shock treatment.”
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
a treatment that involves magnetic stimulation of specific regions of the brain. Unlike ECT, TMS does not produce a seizure.
Jones’s term for a program of treating mental disorder by making the institutional environment supportive and humane for patients.
the policy of removing patients, whenever possible, from mental hospitals
community mental heath movement
an effort to deinstitutionalize mental patients and to provide therapy from outpatient clinics. Proponents of community mental health envisioned that recovering patients could live with their families, in foster homes, or in group homes.