A general term for any treatment process; in psychology and psychiatry, it refers to a variety of psychological and biomedical techniques aimed at dealing with mental disorders or coping with problems of living
Therapies based on principles not related to biomedical approach.
Treatments that focus on altering the brain, especially with drugs, psychosurgery, or electroconvulsive therapy
Psychotherapies in which the therapist helps patients/clients understand their problems
The form of therapy developed by Sigmund Freud. The goal is to release conflicts and memories from the unconscious
Analysis of transference
The Freudian technique of analyzing and interpreting the patient’s relationship with the therapist, based on the assumption that this relationship mirrors unresolved conflicts in the patient’s past
Treatment techniques based on the assumption that people have a tendency for positive growth and self-actualization, which may be blocked by an unhealthy environment that can include negative self-evaluation and criticism from others
A humanistic approach to treatment developed by Carl Rogers, emphasizing an individual’s tendency for healthy psychological growth through self-actualization
Reflection of feeling
Carl Roger’s technique of paraphrasing the clients’ words, attempting to capture the emotional tone expressed
Emphasizes rational thinking (as opposed to subjective emotion, motivation, or repressed conflicts) as the key to treating mental disorder
Any form of psychotherapy done with more than one client/patient at a time. This is often done from a humanistic perspective.
Self-help support groups
Groups that provide social support and an opportunity for sharing ideas about dealing with common problems.
Any form of psychotherapy based on the principles of behavioral learning, especially operant conditioning and classical conditioning
A behavioral therapy technique in which anxiety is extinguished by exposing the patient to an anxiety-provoking stimulus
A form of desensitization therapy in which the patient directly confronts the anxiety-provoking stimulus (as opposed to imagining the stimulus)
As a classical condition procedure, aversive counter-conditioning involves presenting individuals with an attractive stimulus paired with unpleasant stimulation in order to condition a repulsive reaction
An operant conditioning approach to changing behavior by altering the consequences, especially rewards and punishments, of behavior
An operant technique applied to groups, such as classrooms or mental hospital wards, involving the distribution of indicators of reinforcement contingent on desired behaviors. These indicators can later be exchanged for privileges, food, or other reinforcements
A social learning technique in which a therapist demonstrates and encourages a client to imitate a desired behavior
A newer form of psychotherapy that combines the techniques of cognitive therapy with those of behavioral therapy
Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
Albert Ellis’s brand of cognitive therapy, based on the idea that irrational thoughts and behaviors are the cause of mental disorders
A person who gives the speaker feedback in such forms as nodding, paraphrasing, maintaining an expression that shows interest, and asking questions for clarification
Medicines that diminish psychotic symptoms, usually by their effect on the dopamine pathways in the brain
An incurable disorder of motor control, especially involving muscles of the face and head, resulting from long-term use of antipsychotic drugs
Medicines that affect disorders, usually by their effect on the serotonin and/or norepinephrine pathways in the brain
A simple chemical compound that is highly effective in dampening the extreme mood swinsg of bipolar disorder
A category of drugs that includes the barbiturates and benzodiazepines.
Drugs that normally increase activity level by encouraging communication among neurons in the rain. They, however, have been found to suppress activity level in persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
A common problem in children who have difficulty controlling their behavior and focusing their attention
The general term for surgical intervention in the brain to treat psychological disorders
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
A treatment used primarily for depression and involving the application of an electric current to the head, producing a generalized seizure.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
A treatment that involves magnetic stimulation of specific regions of the brain, does not produce a seizure
Jones’s term for a program of treating mental disorder by making the institutional environment supportive and humane for patients
the policy of removing patients, whenever possible, from mental hospitals
Community mental health movement
An effort to deinstitutionalize mental patients and to provide therapy from outpatient clinics.