AP psych ch 12 part 3

eysenck viewed personality structure as
hierarchy of traits in which superficial traits derived from smaller number of more basic traits which derived from handful of fundamental higher order traits
all aspects of personality emerge from ____ higher-order traits which are
3.
extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism
psychoticism
being egocentric, impulsive, cold, antisocial
eysenck said personality determined largely by ____ from conditioning concepts from _________
genes;
behavioral theory
some can be conditioned more readily than other cuz of
inherited differences in physiological functioning
these variations influence personality trait people acquire through
conditioning
introverts have higher ______________ and easier ___________ so theyre more ________________
physiological arousal/”arousability”;
conditioned;
bashful, tentative, uneasy in social so turn inward/introvert
genetic factors exert considerable influence on
personality
identical twins reared apart much more similar in personality than
fraternal twins reared together
heritability estimates for traits ranged from
40-50%
some studies found a link between gene for particular type dopamine receptor and measures of
extraversion, impulsinity, etc.
link between serotonin transporter gene and
neuroticism
specific personality trait may be influenced by ________ of genes each having _______ effect that ________________
hundreds;
small;
difficult to detect
traits associate with relative size in certain
brain parts
extraversion correlate with volume of brain known to
process reward
neuroticism correlate with volume of brain known to be activated by
threat, punishment, negative emotions
conscientiousness correlate with brain known to regulate
planning/voluntary control
natural selection favored traits for
reproductive fitness
used to rely on groups to survive so had to determine
which people had best traits which became over time, naturally selected
big 5 traits are fundamental for
natural selection
nettle said traits themselves (not ability to recognize them in others) are product of
evolution (ex. extraversion promote mating, neuroticism cause avoid danger)
critics/negatives of biological perspective
1. obsessed with establishing exact magnitude of heredibility coefficients. heretibility ratios are estimates that vary
2. results of effort to cause behavior to genetic and environment is artificial. nature and nurture effects are mixed that cant be separated cleanly (ex. bad child might evoke certain parenting) environmental circumstance people exposed to may be shaped by genes
narcissism
personality trait marked by an inflated sense of importance. a need for attention/admiration, sense of entitlement, and tendency to exploit others (Excessive self love)
narcissistic personality disorder (NID)
1. grandiose sense of importance
2. constant need for attention
3. difficulty dealing with criticism
4. sense of entitlement
NID is in _____ people
3-5%
narcissitic personality inventory (NPI)
most widely used measure of narcissism
narcissists have highly positive, easily threatened
self-concepts
narcissists have need to maintain
fragile self esteem
narcissists rather make self look ____ than form _____
powerful;
bonds
narcissists crave ________ like an addiction
approval/admiration
narcissists more _______ and prone to _________
impulsive;
aggression
narcissists first appear ________________. over time, viewed as ____________________
charming, humorous, and well liked;
arrogant, self centered, unliked
narcissism fueled obsessive concern for _________ causing .
attractiveness;
unhealthy diet, plastic surgery and steroids
narcissists “me first” attitude lead to
increase materialism and over consumption of earth resources
terror management theory
focus on personality dynamics.
by sheldon soloman, jeff greenberg, tom pyszcynski
one chief goal of terror management theory is to explain
why people need self esteem
collision of humans self preservation instinct and awareness of inevitability of death create potential experience
anxiety, alarm and terror when think about anxiety
how deal with this terror?
culture provides views of the world that “solve” the existential crisis engendered by awareness of death (answers why am i here? what meaning of life?)
self esteem
sense of personal worth that depends on ones confidence in validity of ones cultural worldviews and belief that one is living up to the standards prescribed by that worldview
self esteem serves a
terror management function and anxiety buffer
mortality salience
degree to which subjects mortality is prominent in their minds
increasing mortality salience
-bolsters self esteem, reducing anxiety
-work harder at defending cultural worldview (harsher penalties, respond negatively to people who criticize country, show more respect to cultural icons)
reminding subjects of mortality leads to
1. more negative evaluation of people from different religions/ethnicity
2. stereotype minorities
3. aggressive to people with opposing political views
continuity is apparent in cross cultural comparisons of the ___________ of personality
trait structure
basic dimensions of personality trait structure may be
universal (Ex. big 5 traits)
cross cultural variability when compare ___________ of samples from various cultures
average trait scores
may be cultural differences on some
personality traits
national character
idea that various cultures have widely recognized prototype personalities (Ask to describe the typical member of their culture on big 5 traits, subjects agreed on ratings on own culture, then mean was correlated with actual mean trait score)
_________ relationship between perceptions of national character and actual trait scores for various cultures
little or no
people beliefs about national character is
inaccurate stereotypes
american culture fosters an ________ view of the self
independent;
-define self of personal attributes, abilities, accomplishments, possessions
-told to be different, independent
american view is not
universal
asian cultures foster an _____________ view of self which emphasize _____________
interdependent;
-fundaments/connectedness of people to each other (told can rely on friend/family, be modest, view self as large social matrix)
-told to fit in and avoid standing out. define self in groups they belong to
individualism vs collectivism represents different
value systems and worldviews
individualism
putting personal goals ahead of group goals and define ones identity in terms of personal attributes, not group memberships
collectivism
put group goals ahead of personal goals and define identity in terms of group belong to (family, tribe, social class, etc.)
those worldviews have implications for
personality
individualism and collectivism foster
cultural disparities in self enhancement
self enhancement
focus on positive feedback from others, exaggerating ones strengths and seeing oneself as above average
self enhancement is less common in
collectivists
collectivists norm is to be
more sensitive to negative feedback and reflect on ones shortcomings