AP Govt. SLO

What specifically would protect citizens of the U.S from imprisonment without trial? (it is mentioned in two different amendments)
Due process
A first-term member of the House from North Dakota who would like to serve his/her constituents the best would likely seek to serve on which of the following committee?

a.) judiciary
b.) foreign affairs
c.) agriculture
d.) science and technology
e.) rules

c.) agriculture
What is the single most important factor in determining the outcome of an election for the House of Representatives?
Incumbency
What authority does the House Rules Committee have? (think about legislation)
Assign bill to legislative calendar, types of amendments
What did Marbury v. Madison let the SCOTUS do?
Judicial review
All of the following help explain the President’s difficulty in controlling cabinet-level agencies EXCEPT:

a.) Agencies often have political support from interest groups (think Iron Triangle).

b.) Agency staff often have information and technical expertise that the President and his advisers lack.

c.) The president can only fire appointees before they have been confirmed by the Senate.

d.) Civil servants who remain in their jobs through changes of administration develop loyalties to their agencies.

e.) Congress is a competitor for influence over the bureaucracy.

c.) The president can only fire appointees before they have been confirmed by the Senate.
The activities of the Federal Reserve Board have the most direct influence on which of the following?

a.) bank interest rates
b.) government spending
c.) oil prices
d.) troop-strength levels of the military
e.) availability of scare minerals

a.) bank interest rates
When comparing elections in the U.S. with those of other Western democracies the biggest difference is _________. (think about when we vote)
low voter turn-out
Which activities of labor unions is protected by law?

a.) Engaging in strikes

b.) Denying public access to a business

c.) Refusing a subpoena to appear before a congressional committee

d.) Disobeying a court injunction to return to work

e.) Requiring members to make political contributions

a.) Engaging in strikes
What best describes the relationship between socioeconomic status and political participation?

a.) Lower the status the more likely someone will run for public office.

b.) The higher the status the more likely someone will get involved in the political process.

c.) Unemployed people will participate more than employed people.

d.) People in the lower middle class participate the most in the political process.

e.) There is no relationship between socioeconomic status and political participation.

b.) The higher the status the more likely someone will get involved in the political process.
Suppose that in 1980 “strong” Democrats who shared Ronal Reagan’s views on taxation and Republican women who opposed their party’s plank on the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) both turned out to vote at unexpectedly low rates. These findings would provide evidence for which of the following hypotheses?

a.) Anything that produces cross-pressure reduces turnout.

b.) Strong party identification promotes participation.

c.) “Rational” voters need a sense of civic duty to motivate them to vote.

d.) Those who express satisfaction with candidate choices are less likely to vote.

e.) Those who are party activists are not likely to vote.

a.) Anything that produces cross-pressure reduces turnout.
Who was the least likely to be part of the New Deal electoral coalition?

a.) Blue-collar workers
b.) Minorities
c.) Southerners
d.) Northern business leaders
e.) Farm laborers

d.) Northern business leaders
Which is not guaranteed right for someone who is arrested?

a.) Remain silent
b.) Be presented by a lawyer
c.) Negotiate a plea bargain
d.) Demand a writ of Habeas Corpus
e.) Receive a speedy and public trial

c.) Negotiate a plea bargain
Literacy tests were designed to do what?

a.) Determine the literacy of potential voters.

b.) Prevent Black people from exercising the right to vote.

c.) Assess the general population’s understanding of the Constitution

d.) Promote opposition to statehood for the District of Columbia.

e.) Stop people from moving to the District of Columbia

b.) Prevent Black people from exercising the right to vote.
Excerpt from SCOTUS ruling in the McCulloch v. Maryland case:

“We are unanimously of opinion, that the law passed by the legislature of Maryland, imposing a tax on the Bank of the United States, is unconstitutional and void… This is a tax on the operation of an instrument employed by the government of the Union to carry its powers into execution. Such a tax must be unconstitutional…”

What principle is upheld by the SCOTUS decision?

a.) Federal and state governments are equal

b.) Congress has only three powers specifically enumerated in the Constitution

c.) Congress has the power to make laws to carry out its constitutional duties

d.) Taxation without representation is unconstitutional

e.) The federal government alone may levy taxes.

c.) Congress has the power to make laws to carry out its constitutional duties
Excerpt from SCOTUS ruling in the McCulloch v. Maryland case:

“We are unanimously of opinion, that the law passed by the legislature of Maryland, imposing a tax on the Bank of the United States, is unconstitutional and void… This is a tax on the operation of an instrument employed by the government of the Union to carry its powers into execution. Such a tax must be unconstitutional…”

Which of the following resulted from the SCOTUS decision?

a.) The power of the national government was strengthened.

b.) The power of the SCOTUS was weakened.

c.) The power of state governments to tax individual citizens was clearly limited.

d.) Congress was given the power to coin money.

e.) Congress alone was given the power to charter banks.

a.) The power of the national government was strengthened.
Where are the details of legislation usually worked out?

a.) a party caucus

b.) the majority leader’s office

c.) the floor of the House

d.) Legislative hearings

e.) a subcommittee

e.) subcommittee
Who is responsible for preparing executive branch spending proposals submitted to Congress?

a.) Treasury Department

b.) Council of Economic Advisors

c.) Federal Trade Commission

d.) Department of Commerce

e.) Office and Management and Budget

e.) Office and Management and Budget
In United States v. Nixon the SCOTUS ruled that:

a.) The judicial branch is not automatically extending during times of nation emergency.

b.) Presidents must account to the Court for the way in which they implement policy.

c.) There is no constitutional guarantee of unqualified executive privilege.

d.) The president does not have the power of an item veto over congressional legislation.

c.) There is no constitutional guarantee of unqualified executive privilege.
“Pork barrel” legislation helps the reelection chances of a member of Congress because such legislation:

a.) Gives the member of Congress national television news.

b.) Helps earn the members of Congress a reputation for service to his or her district.

c.) Attracts campaign contributions from ideological PAC’s.

d.) Prevents other candidates from claiming that the member of Congress is too liberal for his or her district.

e.) Requires the members of Congress to travel extensively.

b.) Helps earn the members of Congress a reputation for service to his or her district.
Which of the following statements reflects a pluralist theory of American politics?

a.) American politics is dominated by a small elite.

b.) Public policies emerge from cooperation among elites in business, labor, and government.

c.) Public policies emerge from compromises reached among competitive groups.

d.) American politics is dominated by cities at the expense of rural areas.

e.) The American political arena is made up of isolated individuals who have few groups affiliations outside the family.

c.) Public policies emerge from compromises reached among competitive groups.
All of the following are formal or informal sources of presidential power EXCEPT:

a.) Presidential authority to raise revenue.

b.) Presidential access to the media.

c.) Precedents set during previous administrations.

d.) Public support.

e.) The Constitution.

a.) Presidential authority to raise revenue.
An advantage that bureaucrats in federal government have over the President in the policymaking process is that bureaucrats:

a.) Control the budgetary process.

b.) Have an independence from the President that is guaranteed by the Constitution.

c.) Find it easier to marshall public support than does the President.

d.) Usually have continuity of service in the executive branch that the President lacks.

e.) Have better access to the media than does the President.

d.) Usually have continuity of service in the executive branch that the President lacks.
Which of the following is the best predictor of the Department of Education’s annual budget?

a.) The preferences of the Chair of the Senate Finance Committee.

b.) The budget recommendations of the National Education Association.

c.) The rate of increase of teachers’ salaries.

d.) The number of children entering kindergarten.

e.) The size of the previous year’s budget.

e.) The size of the previous year’s budget.
Which of the following would be LEAST likely to maintain a national lobbying organization in Washington D.C?

a.) Environmentalists

b.) Public housing tenants.

c.) Nurses.

d.) Auto manufacturers

e.) Auto workers

b.) Public housing tenants.
Which of the following would result from the direct election of the presidential candidates?

a.) A national primary would be established.

b.) Party nominating conventions would be abolished.

c.) Each vote would count equally in determining which candidate won the election.

d.) The electoral college would become more influential in the electoral process.

e.) Third-party candidates would have less chance of winning the election.

c.) Each vote would count equally in determining which candidate won the election.
Since 1960 the presidential election process has been affected by an increase in all of the following EXCEPT the:

a.) Proportion of independents in the electorate.

b.) Influence of political consultants.

c.) Number of primaries.

d.) Turnout of voters.

e.) Role of television.

d.) Turnout of voters.
Between 1964 and 1984, which of the following would been most likely to vote for the Democratic presidential candidate?

a.) A Cuban- American business executive from Miami.

b.) A Black teacher from Los Angeles.

c.) A White doctor from Atlanta.

d.) A Polish- American truck driver from Phoenix.

e.) A Methodist farmer from Iowa.

b.) A Black teacher from Los Angeles.
Which case established the procedures police must use when arresting an individual?

a.) Gitlow v. New York

b.) Munn v. Illinois

c.) Regents of University of California v. Bakke

d.) Gideon v. Wainwright

e.) Miranda v. Arizona

e.) Miranda v. Arizona
“Voting is partly a matter of habit: the more frequently a person has voted in the past, the more likely she or he is to vote in the current election.”

All of the following support the observation above EXCEPT:

a.) Immediately after the 26th Amendment in 1971 gave 18-to-21 year olds the vote, the proportion of eligible voters who actually voted declined.

b.) Immediately after the 19th Amendment in 1920 gave women the vote, the proportion of eligible voters who actually voted declined.

c.) Immediately after the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the participation rate of Black voters in the South was lower than that of White voters in the South.

d.) Unmarried persons over the age of 65 are less likely to vote than are married persons in that age group.

e.) Newly naturalized citizens may need special inducements to vote.

d.) Unmarried persons over the age of 65 are less likely to vote than are married persons in that age group.
All of the following statements reflect positions the SCOTUS has taken with regard to the right of free speech EXCEPT:

a.) A restriction on the right of free speech should always be viewed with skepticism.

b.) There are no acceptable governmental restrictions on free speech.

c.) Government has an obligation to try to ensure citizens the right to be heard.

d.) The right to free speech is a fundamental natural right.

e.) The First Amendment protects free speech from incursions of both federal and state governments.

b.) There are no acceptable governmental restrictions on free speech.
In the original version of the Constitution which provision most closely approximates the popular, majoritarian thinking of democracy?

a.) Election of members of the House of Representatives.

b.) Election of members of the Senate.

c.) Election of the President.

d.) Ratification of treaties.

e.) Confirmation of presidential appointments.

a.) Election of members of the House of Representatives.
Most bills introduced in the House and Senate are then:

a.) Passed by one chamber but not the other.

b.) Passed by both chambers but vetoed by the President.

c.) Referred to committee but never sent to full Congress

d.) Voted down during the amendment stage of the floor debate.

e.) Killed in the Rules Committee.

c.) Referred to committee but never sent to full Congress
Which of the following best defines the term “judicial activism”?

a.) The demands on judges to hear large numbers of cases.

b.) The efforts of judges to hear large numbers of cases.

c.) The attempts by judges to influence election outcomes.

d.) The unwillingness of judges to remove themselves from cases in which they have a personal interest.

e.) The tendency of judges to interpret the Constitution according to their own views.

e.) The tendency of judges to interpret the Constitution according to their own views.
A president may persuade recalcitrant members of Congress to vote for a particular bill by:

a.) Having members who oppose the bill transferred to unpopular committees.

b.) Denying campaign funds to members who oppose the bill.

c.) Threatening to deny renomination to members who oppose the bill.

d.) Threatening to item veto part of a different bill that enjoys bipartisan support in Congress.

e.) Making a direct appeal to the public through the mass media.

e.) Making a direct appeal to the public through the mass media.
In general, independent regulatory commissions are created primarily for the purpose of:

a.) Supporting cabinet-level departments.

b.) Proposing policy alternatives during periods of crisis.

c.) Regulating the activities of the other bureaucratic agencies to ensure that they act in a fair and objective manner.

d.) Regulating certain industries to protect the public interest.

e.) Increasing the President’s patronage powers.

d.) Regulating certain industries to protect the public interest.
The President’s veto power is accurately described by which of the following statements?

I. A President sometimes threatens to veto a bill that is under consideration in order to influence congressional decision-making.

II. A President typically vetoes about a third of the bills passed by Congress.

III. Congress is usually unable to override a President’s veto.

I only.
III only.
I and III only.
II and III only.
I, II, and III.

I and III only.
Which of the following has decreased in Congress over the past 45 years?

a.) The chances of members’ reelection.
b.) The influence of committee chairs.
c.) The power of subcommittees
d.) The total number of congressional staff.
e.) The cost of congressional elections.

b.) The influence of committee chairs.
Invocation of the War Powers Act of 1973 would be most important in determining which of the following?

a.) The nature of the commitment of the U.S. Marines to a peace-keeping role in Lebanon.

b.) The amount of financial aid to the Contras of Nicaragua.

c.) The timing of naval maneuvers off the coast of Libya.

d.) The appointment of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

e.) The legality of extraditing foreign agents responsible for acts of terrorism against U.S. citizens abroad.

a.) The nature of the commitment of the U.S. Marines to a peace-keeping role in Lebanon.
American political culture is characterized by strong popular support for all of the following EXCEPT:

a.) The rule of law.
b.) Limited government.
c.) Individual liberty
d.) Equality of opportunity
e.) Economic equality

e.) Economic equality
All of the following are commonly used by interest groups to influence the political process EXCEPT:

a.) Lobbying.
b.) Contributing money to candidates.
c.) Nominating candidates.
d.) Filing lawsuits.
e.) Appealing to public opinion.

c.) Nominating candidates.
Such consideration apply with added force to children in grade and high schools. To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone..
…We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of “separate but equal” has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. Therefore, we hold that the plaintiffs…are, by reason of the segregation complained of, deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the 14th Amendment.

The doctrine of “separate but equal” referred to above had previously been upheld by which of the following SCOTUS decisions?

a.) Dred Scott v. Sanford 1857
b.) Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
c.) Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer 1952
d.) Engel v. Vitale 1962
e.) Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg County Board of Education 1971

b.) Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
Such consideration apply with added force to children in grade and high schools. To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone..
…We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of “separate but equal” has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. Therefore, we hold that the plaintiffs…are, by reason of the segregation complained of, deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the 14th Amendment.

The SCOTUS decision quoted above did which of the following?

a.) Brought a rapid end to school segregation in the South.
b.) Prohibited segregation in hotels and restaurants.
c.) Required desegregation of teaching staff.
d.) Initially affected only schools were segregation was mandated by law.
e.) Affected segregation in the North rather than in the South.

d.) Initially affected only schools were segregation was mandated by law.
Which of the following best defines the constitutional interpretation of federalism?

a.) The federal government and the states each have separate and mutually exclusive roles and responsibilities; neither controls the other.

b.) The states have some powers reserved to them which they may exercise if the SCOTUS permits.

c.) The federal government and these states have separate but overlapping powers; where these powers conflict the federal government prevails.

d.) The states may only exercise those powers delegated to them by Congress.

e.) The federal government may exercise those powers specifically enumerated in the Constitution.

c.) The federal government and these states have separate but overlapping powers; where these powers conflict the federal government prevails.
All of the following issues were decided at the Constitutional Convention EXCEPT:

a.) Representation in the Legislation.
b.) Voting qualifications of the electorate.
c.) Method of electing the President.
d.) Congressional power to override a presidential veto.
e.) Qualifications for members of the House and Senate.

b.) Voting qualifications of the electorate.
The usefulness to the President of having cabinet members as political advisers is undermined by the fact that:

a.) The President has little latitude in choosing cabinet members.

b.) Cabinet members have no political support independent of the President.

c.) Cabinet members are usually drawn form Congress and retain loyalties to Congress.

d.) The loyalties of cabinet members are often divided between loyalty to the President and loyalty to their own executive departments.

e.) The cabinet operates as a collective unite and individual members have no access to the President.

d.) The loyalties of cabinet members are often divided between loyalty to the President and loyalty to their own executive departments.
Cabinet departments differ from independent regulatory agencies in which of the following ways?

a.) The President can use an executive order to create a cabinet department but not to create an independent regulatory agency.

b.) The President can dismiss cabinet officers, but not commissioners of independent regulatory agencies.

c.) The President seeks appointees who reflect administration views in making cabinet appointments but not in making appointments to independent regulatory agencies.

d.) Through the appropriations process, Congress can exert control over the cabinet departments but not those issued by independent regulatory agencies.

b.) The President can dismiss cabinet officers, but not commissioners of independent regulatory agencies.
Which of the following techniques would a corporate lobbyist be likely to use to influence political outcomes in Congress?

I. Organizing a demonstration in Washington just before a key House vote.

II. Ensuring that the corporation’s PAC makes donations to the campaigns of members of key committees.

III. Meeting informally with Senate aides over lunch or cocktails.

IV. Bringing influential constituents to Washington to discuss important policy matters with their representatives.

II only.
I and II only.
III and IV only.
I, III, and IV only.
II, III, and IV only.

II, III, and IV only.
Congress has exerted the greatest influence on the operation of a federal agency by doing which of the following?

a.) Requiring the agency to participate in inter-agency task forces.

b.) Dismissing an agency head who disagrees with Congressional priorities.

c.) Reviewing the annual budget appropriations for the agency.

d.) Passing “sunset” legislation that terminates programs after a certain period.

e.) Asking the SCOTUS for advisory opinions on agency regulations.

c.) Reviewing the annual budget appropriations for the agency.
Which of the following best describes the relationship between the SCOTUS and public opinion?

a.) The Court assesses public opinion on a controversial issue and then tries to follow it.

b.) Court prestige is so high that its decisions become public consensus.

c.) The existence of a public consensus on a issue that limits the extent to which the Court will render decisions contrary to that consensus.

d.) Public opinion has no bearing on the effective implementation of the Court’s decisions.

e.) There is no relationship between public opinion and the Court’s decisions.

c.) The existence of a public consensus on a issue that limits the extent to which the Court will render decisions contrary to that consensus.
Which of the following is an accurate statement about political participation in the U.S today?

a.) A majority of Americans campaign for a candidate in each presidential election.

b.) Over 75% of Americans vote in presidential elections.

c.) People who participate in the political process are usually angry at the government.

d.) Similar proportions of eligible men and women vote in presidential elections.

e.) People in their 30s or 40s are less likely to be active in politics than are those aged 18 to 21.

d.) Similar proportions of eligible men and women vote in presidential elections.
During the past 50 years, all of the following changes in public opinion and political behavior have occurred in the U.S EXCEPT:

a.) A decline in party competition in the South.
b.) A decline in the level of trust in government.
c.) A drop in voter turnout.
d.) An increase in ticket-splitting.
e.) An erosion of party loyalties, especially among young people.

a.) A decline in party competition in the South.
The amendments to the Constitution that were ratified during Reconstruction were primarily designed to:

a.) Protect the rights of women against infringement by the federal government.

b.) Protect the rights of Black citizens against the infringement by state government.

c.) Ensure equal economic opportunity for Black citizens.

d.) Facilitate the rebuilding of the Southern economy.

e.) Limit the power the President had gained during the Civil War.

b.) Protect the rights of Black citizens against the infringement by state government.
Which of the following statements best describes the SCOTUS’s actions with respect to disputes between Congress and the President?

a.) The SCOTUS has steadily favored the expansion of presidential power at the expense of Congress.

b.) The SCOTUS has refused to allow Congress to subpoena officials from the executive branch.

c.) The SCOTUS generally has tried to avoid deciding conflicts between Congress and the President.

d.) The SCOTUS has supported congressional limits on the President’s powers are commander-in-chief.

e.) The SCOTUS has supported congressional use of the legislative veto as a means of controlling the President.

c.) The SCOTUS generally has tried to avoid deciding conflicts between Congress and the President.
Which of the following statements about PAC’S is true?

a.) PAC’S may give unlimited contributions to the election campaigns of individual candidates.

b.) PAC’S spending has not kept pace with inflation.

c.) PAC’S activity is limited to direction contributions to candidates.

d.) Social issue groups are the source of most PAC dollars.

e.) PAC spending makes up a higher percentage of congressional campaign funds than of presidential campaign funds.

d.) Social issue groups are the source of most PAC dollars.
Which of the following SCOTUS cases involved the principle of “one person, one vote”?

a.) Baker v. Carr
b.) Roe v. Wade
c.) Mapp v. Ohio
d.) Korematsu v. U.S.
e.) Gideon v. Wainwright

a.) Baker v. Carr
Debate of a bill in the House of Representatives under a “closed rule” means that:

a.) The bill can only be amended by section.

b.) Debate on the bill will consist of 5 minutes speeches, pro and con.

c.) Only senior members are allowed to participate.

d.) Amendments to the bill cannot be offered.

e.) The bill must be approved by 2/3 of the House.

d.) Amendments to the bill cannot be offered.