AP Gov Presidency Vocab

12th Amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
20th Amendment
reduce the amount of time between the election of the President and Congress and the beginning of their terms.
22nd amendment
limits the number of terms a president may be elected to serve
25th Amendment
clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
Ad Hoc Structure
Several subordinates, cabinet officers, and committees report directly to the president on different matters
Amnesty
a general pardon for an offense against a government; in general, any act of forgiveness or absolution
Appointment
(law) the act of disposing of property by virtue of the power of appointment
Budget and Impoundment Control Act
established congressional budget committees and the congressional budget office, and gave congress the power to prevent the president from refusing to fund congressional initiatives
Bush v. Gore
this case ruled in favor of Bush by saying that recounting the votes in certain counties of Florida was unconstitutional because of equal protection of the law; Gore’s wish to make the process as simple and painless as possible backfired
Cabinet
persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers
Chief Diplomat
The role of the president in recognizing foreign governments, making treaties, and effecting executive agreements.
Chief Executive
the person who holds the office of head of state of the United States government
Chief Legislator
term for the president as architect of public policy and the one who sets the agenda for congress
Chief of Staff
the senior officer of a service of the armed forces
Chief of State
the chief public representative of a country who may also be the head of government
Circular Structure
several of the president’s assistants report directly to him
Clemency
leniency and compassion shown toward offenders by a person or agency charged with administering justice
Clinton v. City of New York
Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the line-item veto as granted in the Line Item Veto Act of 1996 was unconstitutional because it impermissibly gave the President the power to unilaterally amend or repeal parts of bills that had been appropriately passed by the United States Congress.
Clinton v. Jones
Court ruled that President is not immune from civil litigation and the judicial process. Furthermore, court stated that although branches are separate the branches have the right to exercise control over one another.
Commander in chief
the officer who holds the supreme command
Divided Government
Governance divided between the parties, as when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress.
Emergency Powers
powers given to leaders in times of a crisis
Executive Agreement
an agreement between the president and the leader of another country
Executive office of the president
the branch of the United States government that is responsible for carrying out the laws
Executive order
a rule issued by the president that has the force of law
Executive Privilege
The power to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security.
Gridlock
the inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government
Impeachment
a formal document charging a public official with misconduct in office
Imperial presidency
president is seen as emperor taking strong actions without consulting Congress or seeking its approval
Impoundment power
presidential refusal to allow an agency to spend funds that Congress authorized and appropriated
Inauguration
the act of starting a new operation or practice, the ceremonial induction into a position
Lame Duck
an elected official still in office but not slated to continue
Line-Item veto
Presidential power to strike, or remove, specific items from a spending bill without vetoing the entire package; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Merit System
the system of employing and promoting civil servants on the basis of ability
Myers v. United States
1926; President has the exclusive power to remove executive branch officials, and does not need the approval of the Senate or any other legislative body.
National Economic Council
a United States government agency in the Executive Office of the President. Created by President Bill Clinton in 1993 by Executive Order, its functions are to coordinate policy-making for domestic and international economic issues, coordinate economic policy advice for the President, ensure that policy decisions and programs are consistent with the President’s economic goals, and monitor implementation of the President’s economic policy agenda
National Security Council
a committee in the executive branch of government that advises the president on foreign and military and national security
Nixon v Fitzgerald
There is immunity from suit to government officials performing discretionary functions when their action did not violate clearly established law.
Oath
a commitment to tell the truth (especially in a court of law)
Office of management and Budget
the executive agency that advises the President on the federal budget
Ordinance .Power
power of the president to issue executive orders; originates from the constitution and acts of congress
Pardon
the act of excusing a mistake or offense
Party Leader
The president is generally regarded as the leader of his or her political party; president gives speeches and helps to raise money for his/her party
Pocket Veto
indirect veto of legislation by refusing to sign it
Presidential Succession Act
allowed for the speaker of the house to take over as president if there is no vice president
Press Secretary
one of the president’s top assistants who is in charge of media relations
Pyramid Structure
a president’s subordinates report to him through a clear chain of command headed by a chief of staff
Reconciliation powers for the budget
when Congress issues directives to legislate policy changes in mandatory spending (entitlements) or revenue programs (tax laws) to achieve the goals in spending and revenue contemplated by the budget resolution.
Reprieve
a warrant granting postponement (usually to postpone the execution of the death sentence)
Special Sessions
emergency or crisis meetings which can only be called by the president
Spoils System
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
State of the union address
The president’s annual statement to Congress and the nation.
Treaty
a written agreement between two states or sovereigns
Unified Government
the same party controls the White House and both houses of Congress
United States v Nixon
The 1974 case in which the Supreme Court unanimously held that the doctrine of executive priveledge was implicit in the Constitution but could not be extended to protect documents relevant to criminal prosecutions
Vice President
an executive officer ranking immediately below a president
War powers act
Act that grants emergency executive powers to president to run war effort
White House staff
Personnel who run the White House and advise the President. Includes the Chief of Staff and Press Secretary