Treaty of Utrecht (1713)
ended war of Spanish succession, Philip V king of Spain, efforts of his wife Elizabeth Farnese to secure Italian thrones for sons diverted gov resources, allowed nobility /provinces to assert privileges against monarchy.
Charles III (Spain)
r. 1759-1788. 1st monarch after Philip V to be concerned with efficient administration and internal improvement better gov, spain still couldn’t compete with greater powers.
power dependent on influx of new world wealth, capacity to rule largely autonomous areas of Iberian Peninsula, except for wool, had no exports to pay gov imports treasure fleets vulnerable to piracy, royal government could not operate w/o cooperation of strong local nobles /church, series of foreign policy reverses (ex Spanish armada, treaty of Pyrenees 1659 w/ france), power of provinces/nobility increased during charles II’s reign, which ended w/ WOSS.
After death of William III, prevented emergence of another strong stadholder unified political leadership vanished, naval supremacy passed to british during earlier wars with brits, louis XIV, fishing shipbuilding, countries dutch ships had carried goods between began trading directly with each other, domestic industries stagnated, disunity hastened economic decline, saved by continued financial dominance, banks financed European trade.
Louis XV (France)
r. 1715-1774 duke of Orleans regent until 1720, 1726 cardinal Fleury became chief minister, died 1734, Louis wanted absolute power, unwilling to work hours required, scandalous personal life, did not choose good advisors, despite political drift France remained great power, largest military force on continent, commerce and production expanded, colonies produced wealth, spurred domestic industries, cities grew.
1671-1729, Scottish mathematician, a gambler with duke of Orleans, believed increase in paper money would stimulate economy, established bank in paris that issued paper money, organized monopoly called Mississippi Company, encouraged speculation in stock, fled country after Mississippi Bubble.
Monopoly on trading privileges with Louisiana, took over management of national debt, issued stock in exchange for government bonds, 1719 price of stock rose, investors took profit by selling stock in exchange for paper money from Laws bank, bank lacked gold to redeem paper money, 1720 halted all gold payments, fiasco led to fear of paper money and speculation that marked French economic life for decades.
Duke of Orleans
Louis XV’s uncle, regent 1715-1720, regency marked by financial and moral scandals, undermining monarchy’s faltering prestige, gave financial management to John law, attempted to draw nobility into gov decision making, set up councils where nobles would serve with bureaucrats, nobility lacked talent and desire to govern, but did not surrender ancient ambition to assert privileges influence over those of the monarchy, most effective use of their power was parlements, duke approved restitution of parlement’s law allowing/disallowing power.
Law encouraged speculation in Miss. Co. stock, 1719 price rose, investors sold stocks in exchange for paper money, Law’s bank didn’t have enough gold to back money, 1720 stopped gold payments fiasco brought disgrace on government.
French courts, dominated by nobility, power to recognize or not legality of law made by monarch, approval required to make law valid, restricted under Louis XIV, reinstated under Duke of Orleans, growing financial/moral weakness of monarchy encouraged them to reassert authority, in 1789 became centers for aristocratic resistance to royal authority.
1653-1743, 1726 became chief minister last of great clerics to save French monarchy, understood political ambition/incapacity of nobility, worked to block their influence, part of national debt repudiated, new industries with special privileges established roads and bridges built, could never draw sufficient taxes from nobles/church to put state on stable financial footing, unsuccessful attempted to prevent France from intervening in war between Austria and Prussia, which undermined his financial planning, failed to train Louis XV to be an effective monarch.
1714 as designated by Act of Succession (1701) Hanoverian dynasty came to throne, begun by George I.
r 1714-1727 Militarily successful against James Edward, favored Whigs, gave them access to public office and patronage, early Hanoverian proscription of Tories from public life one of most prominent features of age, gave Walpole full confidence.
1688-1766, Scottish claimant to throne, son of James II, some Tories fearing loss of political power under George I, opened communication with him, 1715 landed in Scotland, marched south, defeated 2 months.
Whigs v. Tories
Whigs supported monarchy but with parliament having final sovereignty, favored urban commercial interests, land owners’ prosperity, religious toleration for Protestants social status quo. Tories: Favored peace with France, strong monarchy, low taxes for landowners, and firm support of Anglican Church. Both: outside Parliament consisted of political networks based on local connections economic influence, a few national spokepeople.
1676-1745, 1715 took over helm of government, regarded as first prime minister, originator of cabinet system of government, real source of power george I and II, control of government patronage, ability to handle house of commons, pursued peace abroad, supported status quo at home, ascendancy brought stability, foreign trade grew, agriculture became more productive, navy became stronger.
South Sea Company
Assigned management of British national debt, sold government in exchange for stock, price of stock soared, crashed 1720 when investors sold holdings, took speculative profits, under Walpole’s leadership parliament adopted measures to honor national debt, to most contemporaries Walpole saved financial integrity of country.
Walpole used patronage to buy support of self/policies from people who wanted jobs/contracts/favors. In parliament each county elected 2 members, if powerful landed families agreed, there was no contest, most members elected from boroughs, some large enough for elections to be democratic, most had few electors, so through proper electoral management house of commons could be controlled, owners of property dominated government, did not represent their districts, but various social/economic groups.
“let sleeping dogs lie”
Walpole’s slogan, peace abroad and status quo at home.
Charles XII (Sweden)
r. 1697-1718, headstrong, perhaps insane, led brilliant campaign in GNW, but Sweden defeated, 1700 defeated Russians at Battle of Narva, turned south to invade Poland, allowed Russians to strengthen forces, 1708 major invasion of Russia, bogged down in winter, defeated decisively at Battle of Poltava, sought refuge in Turkey, returned 1714, 1718 killed fighting Norwegians.
Great Northern War
1700 Russia invaded Swedish Baltic possessions Charles XII’s failure to follow up victory at Narva 1700 allowed Peter to regroup, 1709 Sweden’s fate sealed at Poltava, 1721 Peace of Nystad, confirmed Russian conquest of Estonia, Livonia, part of Finland, Russia Gained warm water ports, permanent influence on European affairs, Sweden lost Baltic monopoly, Prussia gained Pomerania.
Barrier to territorial ambitions of Habsburgs, Poland, Russia, controlled most of Balkan Peninsula, entire Black Sea Coast, theoretically existed to spread Islam, actually very ethnically/ religiously diverse, non Islamic people 2nd class citizens, made of government maintained self identity of various people, prevented integration, 1683 unsuccessfully besieged Vienna, by last 1/3 of 17th C overextended politically, economically and militarily, political groups in capital resisted control, government strengthening, rulers always away at war, in outer provinces empire depended on goodwill of local rulers, weak economy, trade turned over to reps of other nations by early 18th C weakness led to political vacuum, various Euro powers began to dismember empire, 1699 treaty with Habsburg ceded control of certain regions, Russia extending power at ottoman expense, by early 19th C people seeking to create own states.
Units that included people of particular religious faiths, each had different laws and regulations.
Turk Treaty (1699)
with Hapsburgs, surrendered all pretenses of control over and revenue from Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia and Slovenia.
1683 after army rescued Vienna from Turks became example of dangers of aristocratic independence, nobility single most powerful political factor, no effective central authority, monarchy elective, king usually foreigner due to distrust and divisions among nobility, no way to collect enough taxes to build army.
King John III Sobieski
r. 1674-1696 led polish army to rescue Vienna from Turks, failed to establish strong central monarchy.
Central legislative body of nobles, excluded representatives from corporate bodies (ex towns). unanimity requirement major stumbling block to effective government.
Staunch opposition of one member could require Sejm to disband, most often work of group of dissatisfied nobles did this.
Decline of Spanish power left Habsburgs alone in diplomatic negotiations, treaty of Westphalia permitted Protestantism, recognized autonomy of German political entities, diet and emperor regulated politics/economy, began to consolidate power within hereditary holdings, power based primarily on territory outside of Germany , ruled each by virtue of separate title, had to gain cooperation of local nobility, no common basis for political unity, established central councils to charter common policies, had to bargain with nobles in one part to maintain position in other.
Hungarian nobility, ready to rebel against Habsburgs, made Hungary most difficult province for Habsburgs to control.
r1657-1705, resisted Turk advances, aggression of Louis XIV, achieved Ottoman recognition of rule in Hungary 1699, 1703-1711 suppression of Magyar conquered much of Balkan Peninsula, western Romania, allowed habsburgs to develop Mediterranean trade, helped compensate for loss of domination over HRE, gave them greater political leverage in Germany.
r1705-1711. Continued Leopold I’s policies.
1711-1740, no male heir, only weak precedent for female ruler, devoted most of reign to gaining acceptance of Pragmatic sanction, established permanent line of succession, basis for future legal bonds in Habsburg holdings, failed to leave daughter strong army of full treasury.
legal basis for single line of inheritance within Habsburg dynasty through Charles VI’s daughter Maria Theresa, nobles of various Habsburg domains accepted it after extracting various concessions.
Brandenburg-Prussian, forged territories into centrally administered unit, feudal ties and structures–> bureaucratic ones, subordinated social class, economic pursuits to army, rise of Prussia occurred in German power vacuum after 1648, none of inherited lands contiguous with brandenburg, lacked good natural resources, many devastated by TYW, no common factor, exposed to foreign aggression.
Frederick William (The Great Elector)
1640-1688, established self as central uniting factor, broke noble estates, organized royal bureaucracy, established strong army, 1655- 1660 Sweden and Poland’s war jeopardizing some holdings, 1655 B estates refused to grant new taxes, collected with military force, 1659 continued to collect taxes from elapsed grant, money allowed him to build army to enforce will, in exchange for Junkers’ obedience allowed obedience from serfs, FW chose local tax structure admins who would be nobles, taxes heaviest on peasants/ urban classes.
German noble landlords, allowed almost complete control over their serfs in exchange for obedience to Hohenzollerns, sons of Junkers increasingly dominated officers corps, all officials and army officers took oath of loyalty to elector–> army and elector came to embody unity of state, army, Junker nobility, monarchy became single political entity.
William I (King of Prussia)
Frederick I r 1688-1713, built palaces, founded Halle university, patronized arts, supported HRE in WOSS, allowed to assume title of kind. Frederick William I r.1713-1740 imposed strict austerity, consolidation of compliant bureaucracy, bigger army, Kabnett government all lower officials submitted documents to him, started influence of ministers, organized bureaucracy on military lines, debts united under General directory, imposed taxes on nobility, Feudal dues –>money payments , feudal /admin loyalties–> loyalty to monarchy as political institution, not person, unquestioning service to the state.
Frederick William applied fanatic discipline to army, became 3rd/4th largest in Europe, each canton responsible to quota, separate laws for army and civilians, military priorities/values dominated government/society, wanted to not use army, symbol of power only.
Frederick II (Prussia) (the Great)
r. 1740-1786 Upset pragmatic sanction, invades Silesia, crystallized Austrian—Prussian rivalry for control of Germany.
Previously considered part of Europe only by courtesy, had no warm water ports, little trade, vast reserve of natural and human resources.
Old nobility, largely controlled bureaucracy during and after anarchy following Ivan the Terrible, Michael Romanov and Theodore III (r 1676-1682) and Alexis (r 1654- 1676) brought stability and some bureaucratic centralization, 1698 Peter had them shave beards, cut off long shirt sleeves/coats, 1722 Table of Tanks equated social position with bureaucratic/military rank, not perfectly loyal to state, sought to reassert independence.
Horsemen who lived on steppe frontier, revolted 1670-1671
Guards of Moscow garrison, 1698 rebellion brutally suppressed by Peter.
Peter (the Great)
r 1682-1725, determined to copy Europe, tame boyars and streltsy, achieve secular control of church, reorganize internal admin, and develop the economy, established “colleges”- bureaus of several people to look after taxes, foreign relations, war, economic affairs, 1711 central senate of 9 members to direct Moscow government when Tsar away with army, encouraged establishment of iron industry, tried to attract western craftspeople, goal of internal reforms/political departures to support policy of warfare.
Peter wanted to copy west, changed Boyars’ dress, tried to attract crafts- people, set up industries, built st. Petersburg, westernize church.
Russian Orthodox Church
long opposed scientific/theological thought of West, Peter wanted to avoid clergy opposing change and westernization, hierarchy of church causing controversy like that had inspired Old Believers, 1721 abolished position of Patriarch, established synod headed by procurator General (9 laymen) to rule church in accordance with secular requirements, led to futile Old Believer opposition.
Mid 17th C reform movement by patriarch Nikon introduced changes in church text and ritual, old believers opposed changes, condemned by hierarchy, thousands committed suicide, represented rejection of change and innovation, discouraged church hierarchy from making further substantial accommodations to modern thought.
Warm water ports
Peter determined to secure warm water ports to allow Russia to trade with west and have greater impact on European affairs war with Ottomans and Sweden 1696 captured Azov on Black sea compelled to return it.
Peace of Nystad (1721)
Ended Great Northern War, confirmed Russian conquest of Estonia, Livania and Part of Finland Russia had warm water ports, permanent influence on European affairs.
Peter built new capital city on Gulf of Finland, built government structures, compelled Boyars to construct town houses, imitating Versailles/louisXIV, symbolized new Western orientation of Russia, determination to hold position on Baltic, when began construction 1703 victory over Sweden not yet assured.
Inherited Austria through pragmatic sanction, lost Silesia, held on to everything else, centralized tax collection, combined chancelleries of various territories, tripled size of army, founded military and engineering schools, promoted primary education, smallpox vaccine, outlawed torture, capital punishment, eased burdens of serfdom, primary goal to recapture Silesia by strengthening state.
War of the Austrian Succession
1740-1748 Frederick II (Prussia) attacked Austria in defiance of Pragmatic Sanction, France allied with Prussia due to rivalry with Habsburgs Britain allied with Austria to preserve power balance, prevent dismemberment of Austria, B and F fought war in several commercial and colonial theaters, Brits took Louisburg, Pressured Caribbean, French held Belgium after victory at Fontenoy 174, also took Madras (India) as a result happy to return to before war situation, Britain letting F II take Silesia in return for Belgium under Austrian control, war highlighted France’s unfavorable strategic position (between major continental commitments with large army and commercial empire in need of naval defense) and that Austria and Prussia now uneasily coexisting as equal powers in Germany, capture of Silesia strengthened Prussia’s economic base, doubled its population.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
1748 reflected Anglo-French agreement in which Maria Theresa had little say, Prussia got Silesia, Austria kept other possessions.
Count von Kaunitz
1711-1784 Maria Theresa’s diplomat and advisor, engineered Diplomatic Revolution.
Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
Count von Kaunitz convinced France to ally with Austria, their traditional Habsburg enemies, instead of Prussia, against the greater threat of Prussia, forcing Britain onto side of Prussia, helping to reignite colonial conflict between france and great Britain.
Seven Years War
1756-1763 Frederick II outnumbered but fought brilliantly, Britain provided primarily financial support to concentrate on colonial conflict with France, F II aided by opponents disorganization, lack of French enthusiasm for Austrian alliance, able to hold Silesia, Britain won decisive victories against France in North America, Caribbean and India, France depleted by fighting major wars on continent and overseas, B and F both used East India companies to exploit decaying Mogul Empire, thanks to better result of 7 years war, dualism of Austria/Prussia confirmed, increased debt and criticism of French monarchy, setting stage for French revolution, Britain established strong colonial presence in India.
Treaty of Hubertusburg
1763 7 years war, Frederick II held onto Silesia.
Treaty of Paris
1763 Britain gained sole access east of Miss. R., dominant position in India, France won back Caribbean sugar islands, Britain dominant maritime power, French commerce continued to grow, freed British colonists of French threat, Britain determined to make them pay for defense American revolution.
William Pitt the Elder
1708-1778 led british forced in colonies in Seven years War.
Acceleration of global trade involving new goods and techniques due to exploration and colonization, led to increase in population and inflation, new class of independent farmers, development of capitalism, widespread use of mercantilism, goods from overseas became highly demanded promoted consumer revolution.
Result of commercial Revolution, with more demand for supply of goods not keeping pace, inflation occurred.
new class of independent farmers outside of feudal structure arose, imitated life styles of nobles, along with nobles wanted symbols of style/status—imported goods accumulation of wealth by middle classes facilitated merging with aristocracy (intermarriage).
Associations of people of same trade to protect mutual interests, maintain standards of conduct/morality, controlled product, pricing and market availability, maintained to support elderly/infirm members and widows/children, criticized for opposing free trade, hindering technological innovation and business development, putting out system signaled their decline.
German merchants who used profits to bank.
Bank of Amsterdam
1609 funded commercial dominance of Netherlands, formed from resources of numerous investors.
Prominent feature separation of labor and capital, entrepreneurs began investing in own enterprise, used putting out system to side step guild structure, fed by global trade on large scale, governments dependent on private entrepreneurs as taxation base, underwrite state borrowing of funds from banks and other credit institutions.
manufacturers sent materials to peasant families who performed different stages of production, allowed peasants to supplement agricultural income, merchants to avoid higher wages/regulations of urban labor, merchants could acquire capital which would later fund industrialization, peasants acquired skills, could start separate households earlier pop growth when demand rose in 18th C system can’t keep up, merchant capitalists found it hard to get peasants to increase production factory system, where water/stream power could be applied.
investors pooled financial resources to create companies, sharing risk, Dutch and British east india companies most profitable gained monopoly status from gov charters, expected to provide increase in trade and gold/silver, exploited European taste for whole range of new consumer goods.
over seas goods established cultural influence on styles/diet as became more common (ex tea, potatoes) upper and middle class wanted style/status symbols (silk, porcelain, calico, spices) hunger for gods fed CR, competition among nations to establish techniques/colonies to secure access to raw materials/facilitate amount of goods carried by ships new techniques, state sponsorship increased wealth increase desire for imported items/status symbolsincreased need for colonies and joint stock companies to provide goods.
European nations adopted mercantilism in order to fully exploit potential for wealth.
Limited amount of total resources/wealth, see zero-sum game
2) Government intervention
gov did not generally own means of production, intervened to promote national objectives incentives to key industries, sought new colonies, worked to establish national markets by building roads, abolishing localism state needed to regulate/enforce economic policies, sponsored trade monopolies and joint stock companies.
3) Specie/ Bullionism
hard money source of strength/prestige/prosperity, dictated favorable balance of trade (exports> imports), low tariffs on imported raw materials, high tariffs on imported manufactured goods.
4) Economic self sufficiency
Each nation must try to achieve economic self-sufficiency, founders of new industries rewarded by state.
Thriving agriculture should be carefully encouraged, less need to import food, prosperous farmers= taxation base.
6) Necessity of Sea Power
Sea power necessary to control foreign markets, less need to use other nations’ ships to carry goods, enhance own power/prestige.
7) Internal Taxes
Impose internal taxes of all possible kinds.
8) Importance of colonies
Colonies market for manufactured goods, source of raw material.
9) Zero-sum game
a nation can gain at trade only at the expense of another.
10) Large population
large population (in colonies) to provide domestic labor force.
11) Luxury Items
should be avoided, take unnecessary money out of economy.
facilitated exchange of goods between Europe, Africa and the Americas.
biggest money maker of all, small Caribbean sugar islands more valuable than NA mainland, production skyrocketed in 18th C increase in slavery.
originally dominated by Portuguese, then Dutch, became preserve of English after WOSS, profit from slave trade and sugar–> europe’s industrial expansion, British capitalism result of slavery, because profit easy to make on sugar islands, plantation owners invested little in humane treatment of slaves.
Intensification of commercial rivalries
potential for riches led to intensification of commercial rivalries that resulted in war, conflict over territory in Europe often coincided with overseas competition for colonies/markets, colonial competition among Netherlands, England, france and spain accelerated in 17th and 18th C series of commercial wars.
Development of capitol
merchants began to invest profits in business opportunities (banks, insurance, joint stock co), ignored usury concerns, labor separated from capital, putting out system evolves.
Population and Urbanization
increased population during this period, with mercantilism also came increased urbanization, emancipation of peasantry, places that hold out less industrialized.
governments heavily regulated trade/commerce to increase national wealth, which was measured in bullion, assumed very modest levels of economic growth.
Golden age of smugglers
18th C became golden age of smugglers because traders/merchants of one nation always trying to break monopoly of another.
British east india company
privileged, chartered company that enjoyed legal monopoly. Compagnie des Indes: French version of British east india company.
Original European footholds in India trading posts called factories, existed through privileges granted by various Indian Govs.
Convention of Westminster 1756
Prussia and great Britain, defensive alliance aimed at preventing entry of foreign troops into Germany, meant Great Britain who had previously been allied with Austria now joined forces with their main enemy.
Battle of Plasey 1757
in India British forces defeated the French, opened way for eventual conquest of Bengal and later all of India by british east india company, part of 7 years war.
Led british forces at battle of Plasey.
Earl of Bute
1713-1792, replaced William Pitt, responsible for peace settlement with France after seven years war.
War of American Revolution
French and Indian war taxes on Americans stamp act congress/sons of liberty/stamp act crisis declaratory act next 10 years of Parliament passing revenue/admin law, Americans resisting, Britain repeal of law American political liberty ideas Townshend acts Boston massacreTea Act/tea partyIntolerable actscontinental congresswar independence.
r 1760-1820 king during American revolution, sought aid of politicians hated by whigs, tried to use Walpole’s patronage techniques, sought to restore more royal influence believed few powerful whig families and ministers had dominated 2 of his predecessors, so thought should have ministers of own choice and parliament under royal management, appointment of Bute ignored powerful whig families, reasserted influence of monarchy in political affairs, dominance led to discussion of issue of popular sovereignty.
First minister 1770-1782, intolerable acts imposed during his ministry. Treaty of Paris 1783: Concluded the American Revolution, gave colonies independence.