AP Chapter 13-14

Which one of the presidents listed below had low budget deficits during his presidency?
Bill Clinton
According to Figure 13.3, what is the approximate amount of the national debt in 2010?
13,500 billion dollars
Tax expenditures are ____.
revenue losses from special exemptions, exclusions, or deductions
Today, the Social Security system pays approximately ____ million Americans
fifty-six
The Social Security Act was passed in the year ___.
1935
Which is the largest social policy of the federal government?
social security
A budget deficit is when ____ exceed(s) revenues in a fiscal year.
expenditures
The _____ Amendment permits Congress to levy income taxes.
sixteenth
Which of the following budgetary process actors does the president oversee?
Office of Management and Budget
By law, the president must submit a budget by the first Monday in ___.
February
The nation began running a surplus in which of the following fiscal years?
1998
In which of the following years was Medicare included in the Social Security system?
1965
In which of the following years were prescription drug benefits added to Medicare?
2003
Which of the following investors hold the majority of the federal government’s public debt?
foreign investors
Which of the following declared income tax to be unconstitutional?
Pollock v. Farmer’s Loan and Trust Co.
IN which of the following years was the Budget and Accounting Act passed?
1933
In 2012, the average Social Security check for retired workers was ____.
$1,217
Which of the following best describes the executive branch’s role in the budget process before the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921?
executive branch agencies sent budget requests to the secretary of the treasury
The rise of the national security state first began after which national security event?
World War II
According to Figure 13.4, the largest growing federal expenditure category is ____.
payments for individuals
A(n) ____ is an act of Congress that establishes or changes a government program.
authorization bill
A(n) _____ is an act of Congress that funds programs established by authorization bills.
appropriation bill
A(n) ____ is an act of Congress that binds Congress to a total expenditure level for all programs in a given year.
budget resolution
Which of the following best supports Allan Meltzer and Scott Richard’s argument that government grows in a democracy because of the equality of suffrage?
economically disadvantaged voters will support the social security state
Which of the following illustrates American citizens’ usual attitude toward the budget?
americans want to decrease taxes, increase spending , and balance the budget
Which of the following is and example of spending from the federal capital budget?
purchasing new medical research buildings
Which of the following is an example of capital gains?
stock and real estate profits
The national debt is ___ of debt over time
accumulation
Which of the following is a legislative act of Congress limiting how much the federal government may borrow?
debt ceiling
A balanced budget occurs when the ____ and the surplus equal zero.
deficit
What is the purpose of earmarks?
directing taxes into funds with specific purposes
Political scientists use the term __ to describe the budget process.
incrementalism
____ threatens the intergenerational contract for Social Security.
increased life expectancy
Which of the following accounts for the largest social policy cost of the federal government?
social security
Which of the following is an expenditure?
government subsidy
Who pays income taxes?
corporations and individuals
Why is Social Security set up as an uncontrollable expenditure?
it requires reliable funding each year
What is the purpose of continuing resolutions?
they allow agencies to spend at the level of the previous year
Which is an example of intragovernmental debt?
borrowing insurance tax revenue from social security
According to Table 13.1, the largest tax expenditure is _____.
exclusion of employer contributions to health care and insurance
Before 1943, ____ taxes yielded more revenues then individual income taxes,
corporate
According to “You are the Policymaker: Balancing the Budget,” what is the most costly expenditure projected by the OMB?
mandatory domestic policy expenditures
Which of the following is an example of an excise tax?
tax levies on the consumption of goods
According to “Young People & Politics: Education and the Federal Tax Code,” parents with children can claim only one ____ for federal income tax.
Lifetime Learning Credit
The deficit is calculated by subtracting total revenue from total ____.
expenditures
Forty-two percent of people filing income tax returns in 2009 paid no income tax at all. Which tax is responsible?
progressive tax
According to Figure 13.2,which of the following tax revenues dropped least between 2007 and 2012?
individual income taxes
Which of the following is a tax expenditure given to students?
American Opportunity Credit
According to Figure 13.5, national defense spending decreased immediately after which war ended?
Cold War
According to Figure 13.7, which reports directly to the president?
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
In 1985, President Reagan indexed taxes to the cost of living, in order to _____.
keep inflation from impacting tax brackets
Current U.S. policy emphasis on ____ has been characterized as the “politics of scarcity.”
tax cuts
Which of the following relationships is an example of how democracy can distort budgeting?
politicians spend public funds to win votes
Which of the following is the role of the Government Accountability Office (GAO)?
to monitor what agencies do with their budgets
Which of the following is the role of the Budget Committees and the Congressional Budget Office?
to advise Congress on consequences of its budget decisions
Why did Congress pass the Budget and Accounting Act in 1921?
to alleviate concerns about retiring the debt from World War I
According to Figure 13.8, before agencies submit their formal budgets estimates to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for the coming fiscal year, ______.
OMB and the president must discuss the budgetary outlook and decide on executive policies
According to Figure 13.8, the new fiscal year occurs between ______.
September and November of the current year
Why did the United States keep a large permanent military after World War II?
the Cold War began at the end of World War II
Who benefits most from the military industrial complex?
defense contractors
Whcih of the following is the biggest threat to Social Security?
retirement of the baby boomers
Which of the following does the federal government do when it is unable to cover its expenditures?
sell bonds
According to the data presented in Table 14.1, which of the following federal bureaucracies employs the most people?
the department of defense
Max Weber identifies which of the following as a characteristic of bureaucracy?
task specialization
the civil service system was introduced following passage of what law?
the pendleton act
under the spoils system, who was awarded jobs in the federal bureaucracy?
whose who helped candidates win election
_____ are rules created by government agencies that determine how laws are implemented.
regulations
which of the following is a means of enforcing a bureaucratic regulation?
sending inspectors to evaluate compliance
those who believe that regulations on business and industry are too numerous and too complex are most likely to favor the policy of _____.
deregulation
the largest organizational unit in the federal bureaucracy is a(n) _____.
department
___ refers to the authority of administrators in the federal bureaucracy to make choices concerning the best way to implement policies.
discretion
according the the “You Are the Policymaker” box, ____ is the approach to regulation in which the government tells business how to meet certain goals, makes sure these directions are followed, and punishes those who do not follow the orders.
command-and-control policy
which Cabinet department did Congress create shortly after the 9/11 terrorist attacks?
the department of homeland security
cabinet secretaries are appointed by ____ and confirmed by _____.
the president;the senate
which of the following grants bureaucracies the authority to issue regulations?
congress
what is implementation?
the process by which a law or policy is put into practice
the hatch act prohibits federal employees from engaging in what activity?
running for elected office
who are the three main players in an iron triangle?
bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees
a(n) ____ uses marketlike strategies such as rewards to manage public policy.
incentive system
how does congress exercise control over agencies and departments in the federal bureaucracy?
by confirming appointees to key positions in federal agencies
which of the following is an example of a bureaucratic organization?
the department of defense
which of these statements about the bureaucracy is most accurate?
americans dislike bureaucracies
which of the following is an example of Max Weber’s merit principle?
hiring bureaucrats based on their ability to do the job
before 1883, how were government jobs awarded?
jobs were awarded based on applicants’ loyalty to the party in power
which of the following is a function of departments and agencies within the federal bureaucracy?
implementing public policies
the first step in obtaining a civil service job is usually _____.
taking a test
how does the president exercise control over agencies and departments in the federal bureaucracy?
by nominating federal appointees
why is privatization/outsourcing seen as an attractive option for the delivery of public services?
private companies may deliver services more efficiently
what event served as a catalyst for the creation of the pendleton act?
the assassination of james garfield in 1881
why do americans tend to think that red tape is more prevalent than it actually is?
americans tend to notice the bureaucracy only when it is inefficient and not when it works well
which circumstance creates a challenge to the implementation of federal laws?
when congress passes a law that contains ambiguity
what factor contributed to the growth of federal bureaucracy during the twentieth century?
increased demands upon government during the great depression
which of the following is a drawback of privatization, or outsourcing?
privatization may decrease government accountability
why was the spoils system ultimately abolished?
due to growing concerns about a poorly functioning federal bureaucracy
when would congress be most likely to allow a federal agency significant discretion in rule-making?
following the passage of a law dealing with specialist issues
why was the voting rights act successful?
because the goals of the policy were clearly stated
which of the following is an example of an independent executive agency?
the general services administration
according to figure 14.3, which of the following is an example of a government corporation?
the u.s. postal service
in recent years, privatization and outsourcing has ______.
increased at the federal level
how did the pendleton act reform the system of hiring and firing federal employees?
it required hiring and firing decisions to be based on merit rather than partisan loyalty
what is the main purpose served by government corporations?
providing services not fully trusted to the private sector
which of Max Weber’s characteristics of bureaucracy is illustrated by a government agency in which the greatest authority resides with the agency head?
hierarchical authority structure
according to the “Young People and Politics” box, which of the following people would be ineligible for federal financial aid to attend college?
someone convicted of drug use in college
which of the following best describes the policies related to firing federal civil servants?
it is often difficult and time consuming to fire a civil servant
what role is the environmental protection agency taking when it sets limits on air pollution from power plants?
regulation
how do standard operating procedures influence bureaucratic decision making?
they promote uniform application of rules
implementation of the voting rights act of 1965 was aided by ______.
federal registrars dispatches to southern counties
congress and the president share which of the following powers over agencies and departments in the federal bureaucracy?
the power to influence budgets
how do departments differ from independent agencies?
department heads are part of the president’s cabinet; agency heads are not
how go government corporations differ form private companies?
government corporations perform activities that private companies cannot
how are independent regulatory commissions similar to independent executive agencies?
both operate outside of executive department control
which of the following statements best describes the president’s influence over agency budgets?
the president influences the initial budget proposal, but depends on congress for appropriations of federal money.
which of the following agencies is most removed from presidential and congressional control?
the federal reserve system
as describes in the “You Are the Policymaker” feature box, which of the following is most consistent with the incentive system approach to regulatory policy?
reducing federal subsidies to public schools whose students have excessive absenses
what was the purpose of the hatch act?
to prohibit federal employees from engaging in partisan political activity
what is a goal common to both the pendleton act and the hatch act?
reducing the influence of partisan politics on the federal bureaucracy
how are cabinet secretaries similar to independent agency administrators?
both are appointed by the president
which of the following is a primary goal of privatization or outsourcing?
to improve the efficiency of public service delivery
how do command and control policies differ from incentive systems?
command and control policies typically focus n punishing those who violate the law, whereas incentive systems often include rewards
why do its proponents argue that deregulation is good public policy?
eliminating costly regulations makes u.s. products more competitive in the world marketplace
which of the following was a consequence of the spoils, or patronage, system?
the federal bureaucracy was staffed with people who lacked expertise
under what circumstance are bureaucrats most likely to exercise discretion?
when an agency is implementing a law that contains ambiguity